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SUBCOURSE EDITION
AL0993 5
ARMY AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES
AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES
Subcourse No. AL0993
EDITION 5
US Army Aviation Logistics School
Fort Eustis, Virginia
Nineteen Credit Hours
SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW
Fulfilling the Army's need for engines of simple design that are easy to operate and maintain, the gas turbine engine is used in all helicopters of Active Army and Reserve Components, and most of the fixedwing aircraft to include the Light Air Cushioned Vehicle (LACV).
We designed this subcourse to teach you theory and principles of the gas turbine engine and some of the basic army aircraft gas turbine engines used in our aircraft today.
There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest publications.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
ACTION: You will describe the operation of major engine systems and
assemblies; describe the testing, inspection, and
maintenance of engine systems and assemblies; and
recognize various components.
CONDITION: Given information about the gas turbine engine, you
will work at your own pace in an environment of your
own choice, without supervision.
STANDARD: To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a
minimum of 75% on the subcourse examination.
1 AL0993
LESSON TITLE CREDIT HOURS
1 Theory and Principles of Gas Turbine Engines......... 2
2 Major Engine Sections................................ 2
3 Systems and Accessories.............................. 2
4 Testing, Inspection, Maintenance, and Storage
Procedures........................................... 2
5 Lycoming T53......................................... 2
6 Lycoming T55......................................... 2
7 Solar T62 Auxiliary Power Unit....................... 2
8 Allison T62, Pratt & Whitney T73 and T74,
and the General Electric T700........................ 2
Examination.................................................... 3
TOTAL 19
LESSON 1 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 1.................Theory and Principles of Gas Turbine Engines.
CREDIT HOURS.............2.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 1.11.14.
MATERIALS REQUIRED.......None.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to describe the theory of a
gas turbine engine and its principles of
operation.
*** IMPORTANT NOTICE ***
THE PASSING SCORE FOR ALL ACCP MATERIAL IS NOW 70%.
PLEASE DISREGARD ALL REFERENCES TO THE 75% REQUIREMENT.
2 AL0993
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
3 1. In cold weather, gas turbine engines take a long time to
warm up to operating temperatures.
3 2. The Brayton cycle has the same four basic operations as
the Otto cycle, but it performs them simultaneously.
3 3. When air flows through a smaller section of a duct, it
increases in velocity and decreases in pressure and
temperature.
3 4. The turbojet aircraft is a highspeed,
highaltitude
one.
3 5. The Army uses both turbojet and gas turbine engines.
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
Gas turbine engines have advantages and disadvantages.
Evaluate the following statements according to the
information in your text.
3 6. The powertoweight
ratio is 5.60 shp per pound for a
typical reciprocating engine but only .67 shp per pound
for a gas turbine engine.
3 7. The turbine engine has fewer moving parts than the
reciprocating engine.
3 8. Foreign object damage is a major problem for a gas
turbine engine.
3 9. A reciprocating engine uses less oil than a gas turbine.
3 10. They cost a great deal more than reciprocating engines.
3 11. They accelerate much faster than reciprocating engines.
3

Weight
SECOND GROUP
Which of the following statements about the operation of
turbine engines are true and which false?
3 12. Army turbine engines are of the freepower
design.
3 13. The ignition system in the combustor operates as long as
the turbine engine does.
3 14. About 25 percent of the compressed air is used in
combustion.
3 15. Shaft horsepower is produced by the power turbine, not
by the gas producer.
3 16. Army helicopters have a special problem with thrust and
use divergent ducts to overcome it.
THIRD GROUP
The following five questions refer to the theory of gas
turbine engines. Which of them are true and which
false?
3 17. A simple turbojet engine has one rotating unit the
compressor/turbine assembly.
3 18. In a gas turbine engine, the gas stream energy which
remains after the energy for the engine cycle has been
extracted drives another turbine.
3 19. In a turbojet engine, 60 percent of the energy is used
to develop thrust, and 40 percent is used to maintain
the engine cycle.
3 20. A turbojet engine maintains top efficiency at takeoff
and at low cruising speed.
3 21. The functions of intake, compression, ignition,
combustion, and exhaust all take place at the same time
in a gas turbine engine.
4

Weight
FOURTH GROUP
About turboprop and turboshaft engines, which of
questions 22 through 26 are true and which false?
3 22. In Army aircraft, rotational shaft power is produced by
the same turbine rotor that drives the compressor.
3 23. They do not eject highvelocity
gases to obtain thrust.
3 24. A freepower
turbine allows the power output shaft to
turn at a constant speed.
3 25. A freepower
turbine is linked to the compressor turbine
mechanically.
3 26. The power producing capability is variable to take care
of different loads on the power shaft.
FIFTH GROUP
Evaluate the following five questions on illustrating
the principle of jet propulsion by a toy balloon.
2 27. If it is inflated and the stem is sealed, the pressure
is equal on all internal surfaces.
2 28. If the stem is released, the balloon moves in a
direction towards the open end.
2 29. The jet of air coming from the opened end of an inflated
balloon pushes against the outside air.
2 30. A convergent nozzle is created when the stem of the
balloon is released.
2 31. High internal pressure acting on the skin area opposite
the stem is what moves the balloon.
5

Weight
Matching
In questions 32 through 37, match the statements in
column I with the laws or principles of physics in
column II by writing the proper letter by each question.
Each item in column II may be used once, more than once,
or not at all.
6
LESSON 2 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 2.................Major Engine Sections.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 1.151.25.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To teach you to distinguish between the five
major sections of gas turbine engines.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
3 1. Helicopter turboshaft engines develop thrust in their
exhaust ducts.
3 2. In an engine destination, a threedigit
dash number
means that the engine was procured after the new Army
procurement system went into effect.
3 3. Engine idling is one of the two most severe operating
periods for combustion chambers.
3 4. An axialcentrifugalflow
compressor is made up of two
sets of axialflow
compressors and one centrifugalflow
compressor.
3 5. When a number is placed after N, as is N2, it refers to
a specific system in the gas turbine engine.
7 AL0993

Weight
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
About the three basic compressors used in gas turbine
engines, your text tells you that:
3 6. An axialflow
compressor is less susceptible to foreignobject
damage than a centrifugalflow
one.
3 7. Dual compressors are mounted on the same shaft and turn
at the same speed.
3 8. The centrifugal impeller in the axialcentrifugalflow
compressor decreases the air velocity.
3 9. A centrifugalflow
compressor is made up of two rotors
and a compressor manifold.
3 10. A series of alternating rotor and stator vane stages
makes up the axialflow
compressor.
SECOND GROUP
The turbine section of a gas turbine engine transforms
energy into shaft horsepower. Which of these five
statements are true and which false about the different
types of turbines?
2 11. Axialflow
turbines are less expensive and easier to
manufacture than radialflow
turbines.
2 12. A singlerotor
turbine has its power developed by one
rotor.
2 13. All gasturbinepower
aircraft in the Army today use the
axialflow
turbine.
2 14. Axialflow
turbines are invariably the singlerotor
type.
2 15. A singlerotor
turbine is used where low weight and
compactness are necessary.
8
Weight
THIRD GROUP
The next six questions about compressor construction
tell you that:
2 16. A centrifugalflow
compressor is made of either heattreated
forged aluminum or of cast aluminum.
2 17. All manufacturers use the split compressor case for
easier inspection.
2 18. Shrouds are used on stator vanes to provide an air seal
between rotating and stationary parts.
2 19. In an axialflow
compressor, blades fit tightly in the
turbine disk to reduce vibrational stress.
2 20. In both the axialand
centrifugalflow
compressors, the
fit between the compressor and its case is important.
2 21. In a centrifugalflow
compressor, the rotor may be
balanced by using balancing weights in the hub of the
compressor.
FOURTH GROUP
Evaluate the following five statements about engine
model designations by marking an "X" under A for true or
under B for false.
2 22. Each engine model designation begins with a letter or
two letters.
2 23. The letters TP at the beginning of the designation
identify a turboprop engine.
2 24. Even when a production model is changed, the dash number
remains the same.
2 25. The letter or set of letters following the assigned
model number identifies the manufacturer.
2 26. The Air Force always uses even numbers, both for the
assigned number and the dash number.
9

Weight
FIFTH GROUP
Which of the following five questions are true and which
false about the compressor section of a gas turbine
engine?
2 27. Compressor efficiency determines the power necessary to
create the pressure for a given airflow and affects the
temperature in the combustion chamber.
2 28. The highest total air velocity is at the inlet of the
combustion section.
2 29. The highest static pressure is at the inlet of the
diffuser.
2 30. The volume of air pumped by the compressor is
proportional to the rpm of the rotor.
2 31. The compressor is made up of alternating rotating and
stationary vane assemblies.
SIXTH GROUP
About turbine construction, your text tells you that:
2 32. A turbine rotor operates at high temperatures, at high
speeds.
2 33. A fir tree design is used in attaching the blades to the
disk.
2 34. A moment weight number is stamped on each rotor blade to
preserve rotor balance when they are replaced.
2 35. The fir tree blade design eliminates any need for rivets
or other locking devices.
2 36. Shrouding is used in turbines subject to the highest
temperatures and highest speeds.
10

Weight
Matching
In questions 37 through 41, match the definitions in
column I with the terms or symbols they define in column
II by writing the proper letter by each question. Each
item in column II may be used once, more than once, or
not at all.
Multiple Choice
(Each question in this group contains one and only one
correct answer. Make your choices by circling the
proper letter for each question in the lesson book. )
2 42. Which of these is the most commonly used in Army
aircraft?
A. Annular reverseflow
combustion chamber.
B. Canannular
combustion chamber.
C. Can combustion chamber.
D. Annular straightflow
combustion chamber.
2 43. Which of these is not part of a combustion chamber?
A. Perforated inner liner.
B. Stator vanes.
11

Weight
C. Casing.
D. Fuel nozzles.
2 44. Which statement is true of the air and fuel in a
combustor?
A. The only place for air to flow into the combustor is
through the first combustion air holes in the liner.
B. The combusted gases are exhausted directly to the
air.
C. A ratio of 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by
weight is the correct mixture.
D. Seventyfive
percent of the compressor air is used
for burning.
2 45. Which of these is true of the annular combustion
chamber?
A. It contains individual combustion chambers.
B. It has an adapter through which compressor air
enters the individual chambers.
C. Crossover tubes connect all liners.
D. Combustion takes place in a space between the
combustor liner and the turbine shaft.
12

LESSON 3 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 3.................Systems and Accessories.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 2.12.26.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to recognize and describe the
gas turbine engine fuel and oil systems and
their components.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
2 1. The most common ignition system in Army gas turbine
engines produces high tension voltage by conventional
induction coils.
2 2. Fuel is invariable conducted between the parts of the
system through flexible lines.
2 3. Oil is cooled in some gas turbine engines by
transferring the heat in the oil to the fuel flowing to
the fuel nozzles.
2 4. Because the burning process is continuous in a gas
turbine engine, the amount of cooling air is greater
than the amount of combustion air.
2 5. The pressurizing and drain dump valves may be used to
prime the fuel control.
2 6. The fuel pump may be built into the fuel control, or it
may be a separate component.
13 AL0993

Weight
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
Gas turbine engines may have several fuel filters.
Which of the following statements about them are true
and which false?
2 7. Usually a filter includes a relief valve to open at a
specified differential pressure.
2 8. A filter made of stainless steel mesh cloth used to
filter particles larger than 40 microns is called a
cylindrical screen filter.
2 9. Filters may be located in other places in the fuel
system besides the main lines.
2 10. A paper cartridge filter removes particles larger than
100 microns.
2 11. A cylindrical screen filter is used where the fuel
pressure is high.
SECOND GROUP
The text tells you that ignition systems are of three
general types. Which of these questions on them are
true and which false?
2 12. All gas turbine engines have two or more igniter plugs.
2 13. The highenergy
capacitor type of ignition system
actually produces a small amount of energy.
2 14. The annulargap
igniter plug electrode can operate at a
cooler temperature than that of the constrainedgap
plug.
2 15. In gas turbine engines, ignition takes place in
microseconds.
14

Weight
2 16. Electrodes of gas turbine igniters and of conventional
spark plugs can accommodate the same amount of energy.
2 17. Severely damaged ignition exciter units should be
handled with forceps or gloves because they may be
radioactive.
THIRD GROUP
About lubrication systems for gas turbine engines, your
text tells you that:
2 18. Oil for gas turbine engines has a conventional petroleum
base.
2 19. In most turbine engines, the oil is stored separately
from the engine.
2 20. Pressure developed by a gear pump has no relation to
engine rpm.
2 21. Oil drawn from the engine by scavenge pumps is
discarded.
2 22. A gerotor pump has a tooth missing in its inner toothed
element.
2 23. The oil tank is usually made of welded aluminum or
steel.
2 24. The sole purpose of the lubrication system is to reduce
friction.
FOURTH GROUP
Which of the following six statements about the
automatic and manual fuel control systems are true and
which false?
2 25. The amount of fuel needed to run the engine varies with
inlet air temperature and pressure.
2 26. Automatic fuel control is provided by the speed
governor.
2 27. The manual throttle control compensates for altitude and
temperature.
15
Weight
2 28. Most fuel controls in use today are hydromechanical.
2 29. The speed governor is merely a spring attached to the
manual metering valve.
FIFTH GROUP
About the startingfuel
system, your text tells you
that:
2 30. All gas turbine engines have the same number of startfuel
nozzles.
2 31. The pilot turns on the startfuel
solenoid switch in the
cockpit.
2 32. The start fuel flows directly from the external line to
the fuel nozzles.
2 33. The nozzles spray atomized fuel in the combustion
chamber during starting.
2 34. The start fuel system is shut off when the engine is
running on the main fuel system.
SIXTH GROUP
On the subject of fuel nozzles, your text says that:
2 35. A simplex nozzle can provide as satisfactory a spray
pattern as a duplex nozzle.
2 36. All gas turbine engines use fuel nozzles.
2 37. A duplex nozzle must have a fuelflow
divider.
2 38. A fuelflow
divider separates the fuel into low and high
pressure supplies.
2 39. A springloaded
valve is set to open at a specific fuel
pressure; this is the fuel divider.
16

Weight
SEVENTH GROUP
Your text discusses the hydromechanical type of fuel
control. Evaluate the next five statements on the
subject.
2 40. Fuel flow has no relation to exhaust gas temperature.
2 41. Fuel control may be achieved by varying the orifice of
the metering valve.
2 42. As the engine accelerates and airflow through the engine
increases, fuel flow is decreased.
2 43. A fuel control with a longer acceleration time than
would be used for a reciprocating engine must be used
because engine compressors are subject to surges and
stalls.
2 44. One of the factors that limits engine operation is
temperature of the compressor inlet.
Matching
In questions 45 through 50, match the statement in
column I with the instruments to which they apply in
column II by writing the proper letter by each question.
Each item in column II may be used once, more than once,
or not at all.
17

Weight
Column I
2 49. Is a sensitive millivoltmeter.
2 50. Registers engine and
rotor rpm for rotarywing
aircraft.
18

LESSON 4 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 4.................Testing, Inspection, Maintenance, and
Storage Procedures.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 3.13.15.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to describe the procedures for
testing, inspection, maintenance, and
storage of aircraft gas turbine engines.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
2 1. To find out what kind of metal is in used oil, the wave
length of the light from burning it is measured.
2 2. Troubleshooting charts to analyze, isolate, and correct
engine malfunctions are found in the engine TM.
2 3. In selecting a method for cleaning an engine, make sure
that anodizing or dichromating is not removed from the
surface.
2 4. If an exhaust gas temperature system needs
troubleshooting, a jetcal analyzer is used.
2 5. The symbol "D" on a maintenance allocation chart means
direct support maintenance.
2 6. Special instructions are required at specific intervals
between scheduled inspections.
2 7. Maintenance and inspection of gas turbine engines are
appreciably more difficult than those of reciprocating
engines.
19 AL0993

Weight
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
Various safety precautions must be taken during engine
maintenance to prevent serious injury, illness, or
death. Which of the following are among them?
2 8. These precautions are listed in the technical manual for
the engine you are working on.
2 9. Turbine exhaust gases are low enough in temperature and
velocity that exhaust areas are not hazardous.
2 10. Cadmium plated tools are permissible for use on gas
turbine engines.
2 11. Metals subject to high temperatures must not be marked
with a lead pencil.
2 12. If combustion chamber parts have been exposed to fuels
containing tetraethyl lead, anyone handling them should
wear gloves and a face mask.
2 13. Lubricating oil requires no special precautions.
SECOND GROUP
Testing an engine is a necessity, both before it is sent
to the user and after it is in use. Evaluate the
following statements by marking them true or false.
2 14. The engine manufacturer runs the engine in a test cell
before it is shipped to the user.
2 15. When an engine is run in a test cell, different demands
are placed on it than when it is installed on an
aircraft.
2 16. Ambient temperature and pressure affect the weight of
the air entering the engine.
20

Weight
2 17. No corrections of engine problems are made during
testing.
2 18. An engine may also be tested by a mobile engine test
unit.
2 19. If an engine fails a test run in a test cell, not only
is it disassembled and checked for faults, but many
previous engines are also.
2 20. Engine information obtained during testing does not
become a part of the engine record.
THIRD GROUP
About cleaning compressor rotor blades, the reference
text tells you that:
3 21. The temperaturesensing
element on the T53 engine is
cleaned with a spray of clean, fresh water.
3 22. A steady increase in EGT during normal operation is one
indication that the compressor rotor blades may need
cleaning.
3 23. If the engine has been operating in saltair
areas,
spraying it with fresh water is all the cleaning
necessary.
3 24. Always refer to the TM for the specific engine to find
the exact procedure for cleaning it.
3 25. The T53 engine does not have to be run after it is
cleaned.
3 26. The engine TM specifies a definite performance point at
or below which the compressor blades must be cleaned.
FOURTH GROUP
These statements are on gas turbine engine overhaul and
repair, storage, and preservation. Evaluate them by
marking them true or false.
3 27. An engine does not go into the flyable storage category
until it has not been operated for six days.
3 28. After the TBO for an engine is established, it is not
changed.
21
Weight
3 29. No special tools are needed to disassemble an engine.
3 30. Permanent storage is a depotlevel
function.
3 31. When disassembling or assembling an engine, instructions
in the TM must be followed precisely.
3 32. The degree of preservation of an engine is governed by
the length of time it is expected to be in storage.
FIFTH GROUP
Which of the following statements agree with the
information on engine vibrations given in your text?
2 33. Forced vibrations are invariably caused by improper
assembly of the components.
2 34. In a gas turbine engine, imbalance of rotating parts is
the main cause of vibrations.
2 35. A vibration transducer is used to analyze the force
generated by the amount of imbalance and the rotating
speed.
2 36. Imbalance is measured in mils.
2 37. The Engine Vibration Test Data Sheet gives the figures
for maximum permissible engine vibration.
2 38. Externally excited vibrations may also be caused by
imbalance of rotating engine components.
Matching
In questions 39 through 44, match the statements in
column I with the cleaning method to which they apply in
column II by writing the proper letter by each question.
Each item in column II may be used once, more than once,
or not at all.
22
Weight
23
LESSON 5 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 5.................Lycoming T53.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 4.14.23.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to describe the operation of
the T53 engine and its sections, its models
and specifications, and its major engine
systems and assemblies.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
2 1. The T53 gas turbine engine includes an annularflow
path
for the air or hot gases.
2 2. The function of the diffuser is to increase air pressure
in the area.
2 3. The electric torquemeter is used on the T53L13
engine.
2 4. The T53L701
has a singlestage
power turbine.
2 5. Besides cooling internal engine components, the internal
cooling system pressurizes the No. 1, 2, and 3 bearing
seals.
2 6. The right side of the engine is determined by viewing
the engine from the front.
24 AL0993

Weight
2 7. Varying the angle of the inlet guide vanes changes the
N1 compressor speed.
2 8. The reduction gearassembly in the T53L701
is smaller
than that in the T53L13.
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
In the discussion on the inlet housing assembly, your
text tells you that:
3 9. Split power gearing allows greater horsepower.
3 10. Its sole purpose is to contain the components inclosed
within it.
3 11. The aft side of the No. 1 main bearing is completely
sealed by a radial labyrinth seal.
3 12. In the T53L701,
power is transmitted to the propeller
shaft by both the primary and secondary drive systems.
3 13. In the T53L13
engine, the sun gear drives the output
gearshaft directly.
SECOND GROUP
Airflow through the engine shows how a gas turbine
engine works. Which of the following statements about
it are true and which false?
2 14. When direction of airflow is reversed in the combustion
area, air velocity and pressure increase.
2 15. Vanes in the diffuser air passageway direct the air into
the compressor section.
25

Weight
2 16. In the combustion area, the air is used solely to aid
combustion.
2 17. After flowing through the twostage
power system, the
gas passes through the exhaust diffuser passageway into
the atmosphere.
2 18. When air enters the combustion area, its flow direction
is reversed.
THIRD GROUP
Which of these is true of an accessory drive assembly?
2 19. The N1 accessory drive gearbox assembly is mounted on
the upper left side of the gearbox housing.
2 20. Both the N1 and N2 assemblies receive their drive from
the same kind of gear.
2 21. The N1 has drive pads for the fuel control, the starter
generator, and the gas producer tachometer generator.
2 22. The N2 overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly
is on the underside of the engine inlet housing.
2 23. The fuel control overspeed governor is driven by the N2
assembly.
FOURTH GROUP
Evaluate the following statements about the torquemeter
used on the L13
model by marking them true or false.
3 24. Because it uses engine oil, it is part of the
lubrication system.
3 25. Two circular plates make up the mechanical portion of
the torquemeter.
3 26. The stationary plate is attached to the reduction gear
assembly.
26

Weight
3 27. Air pressure does not affect torque indications in this
particular torquemeter because the transmitter cancels
the air pressure effect.
3 28. The stationary and movable plates are separated by steel
balls.
FIFTH GROUP
Your text tells you which of the following about the
operation of gas turbine engines?
2 29. More of the gas energy from the combustion chamber is
used by the power turbines than by the gas producer
turbine.
2 30. When N1 speed reaches 8 to 13 percent, main fuel flows
into the combustion chamber.
2 31. Combustion gases pass through the gas producer nozzle
assemblies and next go to the blades of the power
turbine rotor assemblies.
2 32. The power turbine rotor assemblies are connected to the
power shaft.
2 33. The burning starting fuel ignites the main fuel in the
combustion chamber after the fuel regulator valve opens.
SIXTH GROUP
The compressor assembly is made up of five axial
compressor rotor disks and one centrifugal impeller,
with their housings. Evaluate the following statements
about them.
2 34. Roll pins and lock plates secure the compressor blades
in dovetail slots in the rotor disks.
2 35. Stators direct airflow to the following sets of rotating
compressor blades; the fifth stator assembly has a row
of exit guide vanes which direct airflow to the
compressor impeller.
2 36. Only one half of the compressor housing may be removed
at one time because the housing is used for structural
support.
27
Weight
2 37. Stainless steel inserts are put between some stator vane
rows to increase air velocity.
2 38. The powershaft is attached inside the compressor rotor
sleeve and rotates with it.
2 39. Compressor bleed air flows through passages in the axial
compressor housing.
SEVENTH GROUP
About the combustor assembly on the T53, your text tells
you that:
2 40. It is located forward of the diffuser housing assembly.
2 41. The turbine assembly includes the N1 assembly and the N2
assembly.
2 42. The combustion chamber drain valve remains open
throughout engine operation and closes at engine
shutdown.
2 43. No cooling air is needed in the exhaust diffuser.
2 44. The combustion chamber housing is annular and is made of
steel.
2 45. The average temperature of the gas stream is measured in
the turbine inlet area.
28

LESSON 6 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 6.................Lycoming T55.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 5.15.22.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to recognize and describe the
Lycoming T55 gas turbine engine.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
3 1. The power turbine extracts velocity energy from the hot
gases and transmits mechanical power to the output
shaft.
3 2. In figure 5.5, station No. 4 is located from the
beginning of the centrifugal compressor to the air
diffuser.
3 3. A 3.75gallon
oil tank is contained in the inner housing
of the inlet housing assembly.
3 4. The L11
model has a twostage
gas producing turbine.
3 5. The right and left sides of the engine are determined by
looking at the engine from the front.
29 AL0993

Weight
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
The T55Ll1
engine fuel system includes:
3 6. Fourteen vaporizing tubes instead of 28 dual atomizing
nozzles.
3 7. A fuel control unit is made up of the flow control and
computer sections.
3 8. Actuation of the compressor bleed band by the fuel
control section.
3 9. A cooler that uses fuel to cool engine oil.
3 10. Main and start fuel manifolds at the rear of the
combustion chamber assembly.
SECOND GROUP
Which of the following statements about the sections of
the T55L1l
are true and which false?
3 11. The compressor has a sevenstage
axial compressor.
3 12. The divergent shape of the diffuser decreases air
pressure and increases velocity.
3 13. The struts between the inner and outer air inlet housing
are hollow, with passages for oil and accessory drive
shafts.
3 14. The combustor has 14 fuel nozzles in each one of its two
main fuel manifolds.
3 15. A variable inlet guide vane assembly is mounted in the
front of the compressor housing.
30

Weight
THIRD GROUP
The following statements are about various systems in
the T55Ll1
engine. Evaluate them by marking them true
or false.
2 16. The antiicing
system for the variable inlet guide vanes
uses hot scavenge oil.
2 17. Bearing seals are pressurized by some of the cooling
air.
2 18. The purpose of an interstage air bleed system is to
avoid compressor stalls and to increase compressor rotor
acceleration.
2 19. The control system for the variable inlet guide vanes
schedules their positions according to gas producer
speed and compressor inlet temperature.
2 20. Several passages throughout the engine receive air from
the main airflow to cool components.
2 21. The torquemeter system gives a reading in the cockpit of
percent of torque.
FOURTH GROUP
The lubrication system in the T55 engine has the
following characteristics.
2 22. All oil filters can be changed at intermediate level
maintenance.
2 23. The lowlevel
warning switch in the cockpit signals when
a 2hour
supply of usable oil remains.
2 24. After oil leaves the main oil pump, it goes through a
filter in the accessory gearbox.
2 25. Chip detectors activate caution lights in the cockpit.
2 26. The main oil pump is used entirely to maintain pressure
in the oil system.
31

Weight
2 27. The entire lubrication system is contained in the
engine.
FIFTH GROUP
Which of the following statements describe the T55 gas
turbine engine?
2 28. The accessory drive section is part of the annular flow
path.
2 29. The speed of the power output shaft is the same as that
of the power turbine.
2 30. The airflow is reversed twice in the combustor section.
2 31. In the combustor, the curl assembly reverses the airflow
direction for the first time.
2 32. The swirl cups in the combustor contain dualorifice,
fuelatomizing
nozzles.
2 33. The T55 engine has six sections.
SIXTH GROUP
In comparing the different models of the T55, you find
that:
2 34. The normal shp for the Ll11
is the same as the military
shp for the L7C.
2 35. The L7'
s all have 28 dualorifice
fuel spray nozzles.
2 36. The L7B
has the most accurate electric torquemeter.
2 37. The L1l
model has a twostage
GP turbine.
2 38. All models of the T55 have the same shaft horsepower.
2 39. The CH47C
cannot use the T55Lll
engine.
32

Weight
Matching
Match the specifications in column I with the model to
which they apply in column II by writing the proper
letter by each question. Each item in column II may be
used once, more than once, or not at all.
33
LESSON 7 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 7.................Solar T62 Auxiliary Power Unit.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, paragraphs 6.16.12.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To enable you to describe the T62 APU, how
it operates, and its various components.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
3 1. An hour meter attached to the engine records the
operating time of the engine.
3 2. In the turbine assembly, the shaft is supported by a
forward ball bearing and an aft roller bearing.
3 3. The OVSP light on the instrument panel goes on when the
horsepower reading reaches 70 percent.
3 4. Both models of the T62 invariably burn JP4
gasoline.
3 5. Lubrication system pressure is maintained at 15 to 25
psi by a pressure relief valve.
34 AL0993

Weight
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.)
FIRST GROUP
The T62 electrical system supplies power for the
ignition and engine electrical accessories. Evaluate
the following statements by marking them true or false.
3 6. The spark plug used for ignition operates all the time
the engine is running.
3 7. The speed switch is actually two switches in one
housing.
3 8. The ignition exciter converts input current to an
intermittent highenergy
current.
3 9. All current in the APU is dc.
3 10. A switch shuts the engine down if the exhaust is too
hot.
3 11. The tachometer generator and the speed switch are
mounted on the accessory drive assembly.
SECOND GROUP
In a description of the T62 APU, you find the following
information.
3 12. The T62 APU is an item of ground support equipment.
3 13. It has its own hydraulic starter motor.
3 14. Each model of the T62 has different temperature limits.
3 15. The T62T2A
has a higher input speed than the T62T16A.
3 16. It develops approximately 70 shaft horsepower.
3 17. Its compressor and turbine rotor are mounted backtoback
on a single shaft.
35

Weight
THIRD GROUP
Which of the following information about the T62 fuel
system is correct?
3 18. The flyweight assembly in the governor housing allows a
small amount of fuel to flow at all times.
3 19. For combustion, atomized fuel from the start fuel nozzle
is ignited by the spark plug.
3 20. As compressor pressure increases, so does fuel flow to
the main fuel injectors.
3 21. Fuel flow to the fuel injectors is not affected by
ambient air pressure.
3 22. When the fuel pressure switch opens, it actuates the
mechanism to start the engine.
FOURTH GROUP
About the operation of the T62, the reference text tells
you that:
2 23. During starting, when the hydraulic starter rotates the
compressor, air is drawn into the engine inlet.
2 24. The start fuel solenoid valve is opened when the speed
of the APU reaches 75%.
2 25. Power for the reduction drive assembly comes directly
from the compressor.
2 26. Fuel from the start fuel nozzle is ignited by a spark
plug.
2 27. Fuel goes into the combustor through six vaporizer
tubes.
FIFTH GROUP
If any of the APU operating limitations are exceeded,
protective devices shut the APU down.
2 28. An overspeed switch is set at 110 percent.
36
Weight
2 29. When the instrument panel "Low Oil Press" light comes
on, the pilot must switch off the APU immediately.
2 30. Oil pressure must be more than 6 psi.
2 31. If the APU shuts off, the cockpit control switch must be
moved to the STOP position before restarting the engine.
2 32. The overspeed switch shuts off the engine fuel flow.
2 33. The pilot shuts off the APU when the instrument panel
OVSP light turns on.
Matching
Match the statement in column I with the assembly to
which it applies in column II by writing the proper
letter by each question. Each item in column II may be
used once, more than once, or not at all.
37
LESSON 8 ASSIGNMENT SHEET
LESSON 8.................Allison T63, Pratt & Whitney T73 and T74,
and General Electric T700.
TEXT ASSIGNMENT..........Reference Text AL0993, chapters 7, 8, 9, and
10.
LESSON OBJECTIVE.........To teach you to distinguish between the four
aircraft engines mentioned in lesson title.
CREDIT HOURS.............2
SUGGESTIONS..............Note that this lesson is based on chapters
710.
It does not attempt to cover all the
information about each engine. You are not
expected to study the material thoroughly;
however, it is included if you need it.
Weight TrueFalse
(Answer A for true or B for false.)
3 1. The T700GE700
is being developed for use in the heavy
lift helicopter.
3 2. The T63A700
engine is used on the CH54
helicopter.
3 3. On the T73, the torque sensor measures the amount of
power transmitted from the engine to the main rotor
gearbox.
3 4. Airflow in the T74 is straight through the engine, with
no reverse turns.
38 AL0993

Weight
3 5. The T63 TOT thermocouple assembly is a harness with four
probes.
3 6. The exhaust duct is bolted to the freeturbine
case in
the T73 engine.
Cluster TrueFalse
(Each of the following groups of questions is related to
the statement that precedes them. Write by each
question A for true or B for false.
FIRST GROUP
Evaluate the following statements about the T63 systems
by marking them true or false.
3 7. During start, acceleration, and stabilization at ground
idle rpm, fuel flow is metered entirely by the fuel
control (N1).
3 8. The lubrication system uses an oil mist on compressor,
gas producer turbine, and power turbine rotor bearings.
3 9. The gas producer fuel control and the power turbine
governor are not connected to each other.
3 10. The air bleed system is controlled by a valve which
begins to close when a specific pressure ratio is
reached.
3 11. Torsional vibrations in helicopter rotor systems are
dampened by the check valve assembly and accumulator.
3 12. In the lubrication system, a check valve in the oil
filter outlet passage keeps oil in the tank from
draining into the engine.
3 13. If one of the two fuel pumps fails, the engine shuts
down.
SECOND GROUP
Among the details on the T74 engine, you find that:
3 14. The glowplug
ignition system is for quick starts at low
ambient temperature.
39
Weight
3 15. Both pumps in the scavenge oil system are externally
mounted.
3 16. The heat exchanger uses heat from the oil lubricating
system to preheat the fuel in the engine fuel system.
3 17. The oil tank must be drained before changing the oil
filter.
3 18. One of the T74's turbines drives a compressor in the gas
generator section, and the other drives a reduction
gearing.
3 19. The reduction gearbox is at the front of the engine, and
the accessory gearbox is at the rear of the engine.
3 20. The compressor turns in a clockwise direction and the
power turbine shaft turns in a counterclockwise
direction.
3 21. The fuelair
mixture in the combustion chamber liner is
ignited by fourteen simplex nozzles.
THIRD GROUP
Basic to your knowledge of gas turbine engines should be
enough information about the T73 systems to evaluate the
following statements.
2 22. The ignition system constitutes the entire engine
electrical system.
2 23. Scavenge oil from the main bearings and gearbox empties
into a common tube that returns it to the tank.
2 24. Fuel goes from the fuel pump directly to the right and
left fuel manifolds.
2 25. An external tube on the left side of the engine carries
hot antiicing
air forward to the compressor.
2 26. All pressure oil lines in the lubrication system are
internal.
40

Weight
FOURTH GROUP
About the two T63 engines, the text tells you that:
3 27. The lubrication system has one magnetic chip detector
plug in the accessory gearbox sump and one in the
scavenge oil pressure line.
3 28. The gas producer and power turbine gear trains are both
contained in the accessory gearbox section.
3 29. The T63A5A
is the one used on the OH58
helicopter.
3 30. Both the power turbine and the gas producer turbine
rotate at the same speed.
3 31. The T63 compressor must not be cleaned with ordinary
cleaning solvents, because they would dissolve the
plastic coating on the inside.
FIFTH GROUP
In the T73 engine:
2 32. The main pumping element raises the fuel pressure by
approximately 20 psi.
2 33. The gas producer rotor and the power turbine rotor turn
in opposite directions.
2 34. Stages 5 through 9 of the compressor rotor shroud and
vane assembly are housed in the diffuser case.
2 35. The accessory drive gear is in the gas producer turbine
rotor assembly.
2 36. One duplex fuel nozzle matches each of the combustion
chambers.
2 37. Highpressure
air for antiicing
and fuel heating is
bled off from the compressor inlet case.
41

CONTENTS
Paragraph Page
INTRODUCTION................................... 1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO GAS
TURBINE ENGINES.................. 1.1 3
Section I. Theory of Gas Turbine
Engines....................... 1.2 3
II. Principles of Operation....... 1.7 12
III. Major Engine Sections......... 1.15 21
CHAPTER 2. SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES.......... 2.1 46
Section I. Fuel Systems and
Components.................... 2.2 46
II. Lubrication Systems........... 2.12 58
III. Ignition Systems and
Engine Instrumentation........ 2.21 62
CHAPTER 3. TESTING, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE,
AND STORAGE PROCEDURES........... 3.1 68
CHAPTER 4. LYCOMING T53..................... 4.1 89
Section I. Operational Description of
the T53 Gas Turbine Engine.... 4.2 89
II. Major Engine Systems
and Assemblies................ 4.9 99
CHAPTER 5. LYCOMING T55..................... 5.1 146
Section I. Operational Description of the
T55 Gas Turbine Engine........ 5.2 146
i

Paragraph Page
Section II. Major Engine Sections
and Systems................... 5.8 152
CHAPTER 6. SOLAR T62 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT. . . 6.1 174
CHAPTER 7. ALLISON T63...................... 7.1 188
CHAPTER 8. PRATT AND WHITNEY T73............ 8.1 210
CHAPTER 9. PRATT AND WHITNEY T74............ 9.1 224
Section I. Operational Characteristics
and Description............... 9.2 224
II. Major Engine Systems.......... 9.13 240
CHAPTER 10. GENERAL ELECTRIC T700............ 10.1 256
ii

INTRODUCTION
Aircraft designers have always been limited by the efficiency of
the available powerplants. Their constant plea has been for higher
power, less weight, lower frontal area, better cooling
characteristics, and lower fuel consumption. These requirements have
been met to a certain degree by the designers of reciprocating
engines, but the design of the piston engine has been carried to such
a point that to obtain further increase in power, more cylinders
would have to be added. This would immediately raise more complex
problems, which must be solved before an increase in power can be
achieved.
The aircraft designers' pleas have been answered with the
development of the gas turbine engine. Since the end of World War
II, progress in the gas turbine field has been rapid. Development of
improved materials, high temperature metals, and better fuels should
expedite further progress in this held. The gas turbine engine's
greatest contribution to aviation is that it has lifted all previous
limits that were imposed by the reciprocating engine.
This text describes the operation, components, and systems of the
gas turbine engine. The first chapter includes an introduction to
gas turbine engines. Chapter 2 discusses the systems and accessories
such as fuel, oil, and electrical. Chapter 3 covers testing,
inspection, maintenance, and storage procedures. Chapters 4 through
10 describe in detail the gas turbine engines used in Army aircraft.
1

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO GAS TURBINE ENGINES
1.1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduces the theory and operating principles of
gas turbine engines. Gas turbine engines can be classified according
to the type of compressor used, the path the air takes through the
engine, and how the power produced is extracted or used. The chapter
is limited to the fundamental concepts of the three major classes of
turbine engines, each having the same principles of operation.
Chapter 1 is divided into three sections; the first discusses
the theory of turbine engines. The second section deals with
principles of operation, and section III covers the major engine
sections and their description.
Section I. Theory of Gas Turbine Engines
1.2. GENERAL
Section I covers the laws of physics and fundamentals
pertaining to the theory of jet propulsion. The gas turbine engines
used to power Army aircraft are turboshaft powerplants. The energy
produced drives the power shaft. Energy is generated by burning the
fuelair
mixture in the engine and accelerating the gas tremendously.
These highvelocity
gases are directed through turbine wheels which
convert the axial movement of the gas to a rotary motion. This
rotary power is used to drive a powershaft, which drives a propeller
or a rotor transmission.
1.3. LAWS OF MOTION
The theory of gas turbine engines is based on the laws and
principles of physics discussed in the subparagraphs that follow.
Newton's First Law of Motion. The first law states that a
body in a state of rest remains at rest, and a body in motion tends
to remain in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line,
unless acted upon by some external force.
3

Newton's Second Law of Motion. The second law states that an
imbalance of forces on a body produces or tends to produce an
acceleration in the direction of the greater force, and the
acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely
proportional to the mass of the body.
Newton's Third Law of Motion. The third law states that for
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and the two are
directed along the same straight line.
Bernoulli's Principle. This principle states that if the
velocity of a gas or liquid is increased its pressure will decrease.
The opposite is also true. If the velocity of a gas or liquid is
decreased its pressure will increase. This fact relates directly to
the law of conservation of energy.
Einstein's Law of Conservation of Energy. This law states
that the amount of energy in the universe remains constant. It is
not possible to create or destroy energy; however, it may be
transformed.
Boyle's Law. This law states that if the temperature of a
confined gas is not changed, the pressure will increase in direct
relationship to a decrease in volume. The opposite is also true the
pressure will decrease as the volume is increased. A simple
demonstration of how this works may be made with a toy balloon. If
you squeeze the balloon, its volume is reduced, and the pressure of
air inside the balloon is increased. If you squeeze hard enough, the
pressure will burst the balloon.
Charles' Law. This law states that if a gas under constant
pressure is so confined that it may expand, an increase in the
temperature will cause an increase in volume. If you hold the
inflated balloon over a stove, the increase in temperature will cause
the air to expand and, if the heat is sufficiently great, the balloon
will burst. Thus, the heat of combustion expands the air available
within the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine.
Pressure and Velocity. Air is normally thought of in relation
to its temperature, pressure, and volume. Within a gas turbine
engine the air is put into motion so now another factor must be
considered, velocity. Consider a constant airflow through a duct.
As long as the duct crosssectional
area remains unchanged, air will
continue to flow at the same rate (disregard frictional loss). If
the crosssectional
area of the duct should become smaller (convergent
4
area), the airflow must increase velocity if it is to continue to
flow the same number of pounds per second of airflow (Bernoulli's
Principle). In order to obtain the necessary velocity energy to
accomplish this, the air must give up some pressure and temperature
energy (law of conservation of energy). The net result of flow
through this restriction would be a
decrease in pressure and temperature
and an increase in velocity. The
opposite would be true if air were to
flow from a smaller into a larger
duct (divergent area); velocity
would then decrease, and pressure
and temperature would increase. The
throat of an automobile carburetor is a
good example of the effect of airflow
through a restriction (venturi); even on the
hottest day the center portion of
the carburetor feels cool.
Convergent and divergent areas
are used throughout a gas
turbine engine to control
pressure and velocity of the
airgas
stream as it flows
through the engine.
1.4. THEORY OF JET PROPULSION
The principle of jet
propulsion can be illustrated by
a toy balloon. When inflated and
the stem is sealed, the pressure
is exerted equally on all
internal surfaces. Since the
force of this internal pressure
is balanced there will be no
tendency for the balloon to move.
If the stem is released
the balloon will move in a
direction away from the escaping
jet of air. Although the flight
of the balloon may appear
erratic, it is at all
5
times moving in a direction away from the open stem.
The balloon moves because of an unbalanced condition existing
within it. The jet of air does not have to push against the outside
atmosphere; it would function better in a vacuum. When the stem area
of the balloon is released, a convergent nozzle is created. As the
air flows through this area, velocity is increased accompanied by a
decrease in air pressure. In addition, an area of skin against which
the internal forces had been pushing is removed. On the opposite
internal surface of the balloon, an equal area of skin still remains.
The higher internal pressure acting on this area moves the balloon in
a direction away from the open stem. The flight of the balloon will
be of short duration, though, because the air in the balloon is soon
gone. If a source of pressurized air were provided, it would be
possible to sustain flight of the balloon.
1.5. THEORY OF THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE
If the balloon were converted into a length of pipe, and at
the forward end an air compressor designed with blades somewhat like
a fan were installed, this could provide a means to replenish the air
supply within the balloon.
6
A source of power is now required to turn the compressor. To
extend the volume of air, fuel and ignition are introduced and
combustion takes place. This greatly expands the volume of gas
available.
In the path of the now rapidly expanding gases, another fan or
turbine can be placed. As the gases pass through the blades of the
turbine, they cause it to rotate at high speed. By connecting the
turbine to the compressor, we have a mechanical means to rotate the
compressor to replenish the air supply. The gases still possessing
energy are discharged to the atmosphere through a nozzle that
accelerates the gas stream. The reaction is thrust or movement of
the tube away from the escaping gas stream. We now have a simple
turbojet engine.
7

The turbojet engine is a highspeed,
highaltitude
powerplant.
The Army, at present, has no requirement for this type of engine.
Because it is simple and easy to operate and maintain, however, the
Army does use the gas turbine engine. The simple turbojet engine has
primarily one rotating unit, the compressor/turbine assembly. The
turbine extracts from the gas stream the energy necessary to rotate
the compressor. This furnishes the pressurized air to maintain the
engine cycle. Burning the fuelair
mixture provides the stream of
hot expanding gas from which approximately 60 percent of the energy
is extracted to maintain the engine cycle. Of the total energy
development, approximately 40 percent is available to develop useful
thrust directly.
If we had ten automobile engines that would equal the total
shaft horsepower of a turbine engine, it would take six of these
engines to turn the compressor, and the other four would supply the
power to propel the aircraft. The amount of energy required to
rotate the compressor may at first seem too large; however, it should
be remembered that the compressor is accelerating a heavy mass
(weight) of air towards the rear of the engine. In order to produce
the gas stream, it was necessary to deliver compressed air by a
mechanical means to a burner zone. The compressor, being the first
rotating unit, is referred to as the N1 system.
With a requirement for an engine that delivers rotational
shaft power, the next step is to harness the remaining gas stream
energy with another turbine (free turbine). By connecting the
turbine to a shaft, rotational power can be delivered to drive an
aircraft propeller, a helicopter rotor system, a generator, a tank,
an air cushion vehicle (ACV), or whatever is needed. The power shaft
can extend from the front, back, or from an external gearbox. All of
these locations are in use on various types of Army engines at
present.
The following sketch shows a turboshaft engine with the power
shaft extended out the front. The bottom sketch shows the same
engine with the power shaft extending out the back.
The basic portion of the turbine engine, the gas producer,
extracts approximately 60 percent of the gas stream energy
(temperature/pressure) to sustain the engine cycle. To develop
rotational shaft power, the remaining gas stream energy must drive
another turbine. In Army engines today, a power turbine that is free
and independent of the gas producer system accomplishes this task.
The power turbine and shaft (N2 system) are not mechanically connected
to the gas producer (N1 system). It is a free turbine. The
8

gas stream passing across the turbines is the only link between these
two systems. The freeturbine
engine can operate over wide power
ranges with a constant outputshaft
speed.
In operation, the gas producer (N1) system automatically
varies its speed, thereby controlling the intensity of the gas stream
in relation to the load applied to the power (N2) shaft. This is
accomplished by a fuel metering system that senses engine
requirements. The free turbine design has revolutionized the methods
of application of shaft turbine engines. Why a shaft turbine? Why
is a perfectly good jet engine used to drive a propeller? Because in
the speed range that Army aircraft operate, the propeller or
helicopter rotor is more efficient. With a turbojet engine, power
(thrust) produced is roughly the difference between the velocity of
the air entering the engine and the velocity of the air exiting from
the engine. Efficiency of the engine (power producer versus fuel
consumed) increases with speed until it is 100 percent efficient when
the forward
9

speed of the engine is equal to the rearward speed of the jet. It is
this low efficiency at takeoff and at low cruising speed (i.e., 400
mph) that makes the turbojet engine unsuitable for use in Army
aircraft. The propeller does not lack efficiency at low speed; the
reverse is true, in that efficiency falls off at high speed. The
result is to harness the jet engine's gas stream energy to drive a
propeller or helicopter rotor system, thereby taking advantage of the
best features of both.
Aircraft reciprocating engines operate on the fourstroke,
fiveevent
principle. Four strokes of the piston, two up and two
down, are required to provide one power impulse to the crankshaft.
Five events take place during these four strokes: the intake,
compression, ignition, power, and exhaust events. These events must
take place in the cylinder in the sequence given for the engine to
operate.
10
Although the gas turbine engine differs radically in
construction from the conventional fourstroke,
fiveevent
cycle
reciprocating engine, both involve the same basic principle of
operation. In the piston (reciprocating) engine, the functions of
intake, compression, ignition, combustion, and exhaust all take place
in the same cylinder and, therefore, each must completely occupy the
chamber during its respective part of the combustion cycle. In the
gas turbine engine, a separate section is devoted to each function,
and all functions are performed at the same time without interruption.
1.6. SUMMARY
The theory of gas turbine engine operation is based on the
laws or principles of physics. The principle of jet propulsion can
be illustrated by a toy balloon. When the balloon is inflated and
the stem is unsealed the balloon will move in a direction away from
the escaping jet of air. If the balloon is converted into a length
of pipe, and at the forward end an air compressor is installed to
supply air for combustion, and to expand the volume of air, fuel and
ignition are introduced and combustion takes place. Then, in the
path of the expanding gases a turbine rotor is installed. As the
gases pass through the turbine blades, the turbine rotor is rotated
at high speed. This turbine rotor is connected to the compressor
shaft, and we now have a means to rotate the compressor to replenish
the air supply. The remaining gases are discharged to the
atmosphere. The reaction of these gases is thrust, or movement of
the tube away from the escaping gases. This is a simple turbojet
engine. At present the Army has no requirement for this highspeed,
highaltitude
powerplant. However, if we install another turbine
rotor after the rotor that drives the compressor, we have a
turboshaft engine that can be used to drive a transmission in a
helicopter or a propeller on a fixedwing
aircraft.
11
In the turbojet engine, approximately 60 percent of the energy
is extracted to rotate the compressor, while the remaining 40 percent
is used to develop thrust. In the turboshaft engine, the remaining
energy is used to drive a turbine rotor attached to a transmission or
propeller. On a freeturbine
engine, the gas stream passing across
the turbines is the only link between the two turbine rotors. One
turbine drives the compressor and the other turbine propels the
aircraft. The freeturbine
engine is used in Army aircraft.
The gas turbine engine differs radically in construction from
the reciprocating engine in that the turbine engine has a separate
section for each function, while in the reciprocating engine all
functions are performed in the same cylinder.
Section II. Principles of Operation
1.7. GENERAL
This section covers the principles of turbine engine
operation. The three classifications of turbine engines are
turbojet, turboshaft, and ramjet. The term "turbo" means "turbine."
Therefore, a turboshaft engine is one which delivers power through a
shaft.
1.8. OTTO AND BRAYTON CYCLES
There is an element of similarity to both the reciprocating
and jet engines, but the thermodynamic cycle of each is different
from the other. The reciprocating engine operates on the Otto cycle,
a constant volume cycle, consisting of four distinct operations.
These operations are performed intermittently by a piston
reciprocating in an enclosed cylinder. It is important to remember
that the piston in a reciprocating engine delivers power only during
one of its four strokes.
The turbine engine operates on the Brayton cycle, a constant
pressure cycle containing the same four basic operations as the Otto
cycle, but accomplishing them simultaneously and continuously so that
an uninterrupted flow of power from the engine results. Figure 1.1
shows a graph display of the Otto and Brayton cycles.
1.9. BRAYTON CYCLE OF OPERATION
Ambient air is drawn into the inlet section by the rotating
compressor. The compressor forces this incoming air rearward and
delivers it to the combustion chamber at a higher pressure than the
air had at the inlet. The compressed air is then mixed with fuel that
12
is sprayed into the combustion chamber by the fuel nozzles. The fuel
and air mixture is then ignited by electrical igniter plugs similar
to spark plugs. This ignition system is only in operation during the
starting sequence, and once started, combustion is continuous and
selfsustaining
as long as the engine is supplied with the proper
airfuel
ratio. Only about 25 percent of the air is used for
combustion. The remaining air is used for internal cooling and
pressurizing.
Figure 1.1. Otto and Brayton Cycles.
The turbine engines in the Army inventory are of the freepower
turbine design, as shown in figure 1.2. In this engine, nearly
twothirds
of the energy produced by combustion is extracted by the
gas producer turbine to drive the compressor rotor. The power
turbine extracts the remaining energy and converts it to shaft
13
horsepower (shp), which is used to drive the output shaft of the
engine. The gas then exits the engine through the exhaust section to
the atmosphere. Army helicopters use a divergent duct to eliminate
the remaining thrust. The various kinds of exhaust ducting are
discussed in detail with the engine using that particular ducting.
Figure 1.2. Typical FreePower
Turboshaft Engine.
1.10. TURBOJET
The turbojet is the engine in most common use today in highspeed,
highaltitude
aircraft, not in Army aircraft. With this
engine, air is drawn in by a compressor which raises internal
pressures many times over atmospheric pressure. The compressed air
then passes into a combustion chamber where it is mixed with fuel to
be ignited and burned. Burning the fuelair
mixture expands the gas,
which is accelerated out the rear as a highvelocity
jetstream.
In
the turbine section of the engine, the hot expanded gas rotates a
turbine wheel which furnishes power to keep the compressor going.
The gas turbine engine operates on the principle of intake,
compression, power, and exhaust, but unlike the reciprocating engine,
these events are continuous. Approximately twothirds
of the total
energy developed within the combustion chamber is absorbed by the
turbine
14

wheel to sustain operation of the compressor. The remaining energy
is discharged from the rear of the engine as a high velocity jet, the
reaction to which is thrust or forward movement of the engine. The
turbojet is shown schematically in figure 1.3.
Figure 1.3. AxialFlow
Turbojet Engine.
1.11. TURBOPROP ENGINE AND TURBOSHAFT ENGINE
The turboprop engine and turboshaft engines, shown in figures
1.4 and 1.5, are of the same basic type as the turbojet. Instead of
ejecting highvelocity
exhaust gases to obtain thrust, as in the
turbojet, a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases
to rotational shaft power. A propeller or helicopter transmission
can be connected to the engine through reduction gearing. This
energy may be extracted by the same turbine rotor that drives the
compressor, or it may be a freepower
turbine which is independent of
the compressor turbine and only linked to it by the expanding gases.
The freepower
turbine is the type used in Army aircraft to
harness the energy of the gases and convert this energy to rotational
shaft power. This feature of having a freepower
turbine enables the
power output shaft to turn at a constant speed while the power
producing capability of the engine can be varied to accommodate the
increased loads applied to the power output shaft. Turbine engines
may be further divided into three general groups, centrifugalflow,
axialflow,
and axialcentrifugalflow,
depending upon the type of
15

compressor. Figure 1.4 shows an axialflow
turboprop engine, figure
1.5 shows a centrifugalflow
turbojet engine, and figure 1.5a shows
an axialcentrifugalflow
compressor.
Figure 1.4. AxialFlow
Turboprop Engine.
Figure 1.5. CentrifugalFlow
Turbojet Engine.
16

Figure 1.5a. AxialCentrifugalFlow
Compressor.
17
1.12. ADVANTAGES OF TURBINE ENGINES
Keeping in mind the basic theory of turbine engines, compare
the advantages and disadvantages of the turbine engine with the
piston or reciprocating engine. The advantages are covered in the
subparagraphs below, and disadvantages are discussed in paragraph
1.13.
a. Powertoweight
ratio. Turbine engines have a higher
powertoweight
ratio than reciprocating engines. An example of this
is the T55Ll11.
It weighs approximately 650 pounds and delivers 3,
750 shaft horsepower. The powertoweight
ratio for this engine is
5.60 shp per pound, where the average reciprocating engine has a
powertoweight
ratio of approximately .67 shp per pound.
b. Less maintenance. Maintenance per hour of operation is
especially important in military operations. Turbine engines require
less maintenance per flying hour than reciprocating engines generally
do. As an aircraft maintenance officer, this advantage will appeal
to you because of a greater aircraft availability and lower
maintenance hour to flying hour ratio. The turbine engine also has
fewer moving parts than a reciprocating engine; this is also an
advantage over the reciprocating engine.
c. Less drag. Because of the design, the turbine engine has
a smaller frontal area than the reciprocating engine. A
reciprocating engine requires a large frontal area which causes a
great deal of drag on the aircraft. Turbine engines are more
streamlined in design, causing less drag. Figure 1.6 shows one of
the two nacelles that contain reciprocating engines in the old CH37
cargo helicopter. Figure 1.7 shows the smaller frontal area of the
turbine engines that power the CH47
Chinook helicopter. Because of
this, the engine nacelles are more streamlined in design, causing
less drag.
d. Cold weather starting. The turbine engine does not
require any oil dilution or preheating of the engine before starting.
Also, once started, the reciprocating engine takes a long time to
warm up to operating temperatures, whereas the turbine engine starts
readily and is up to operating temperature immediately.
e. Low oil consumption. The turbine engine, in general, has
a lower rate of oil consumption than the reciprocating engine. The
turbine engine does not require the oil reservoir capacity to be as
large as the reciprocating engine's; because of this, a weight and
economy factor is an additional advantage.
18

Figure 1.6. Reciprocating Engine Nacelles on CH37.
Figure 1.7. Turbine Engine Nacelles on CH47.
1.13. DISADVANTAGES OF TURBINE ENGINES
Just like everything else, along with the advantages or the
good, we have to take the disadvantages or the bad. This also holds
true with the turbine engine. The disadvantages of the turbine
engine are discussed in the following subparagraphs.
19
a. Foreign object damage. One of the major problems faced by
the turbine engine is foreign object damage (FOD). A turbine engine
requires tremendous quantities of air. This air is sucked into the
engine at extremely high velocities, and it will draw up anything
that comes near the inlet area. The turbine engines used in Army
aircraft are fitted with filters around the engine inlet to prevent
foreign objects from entering the engine and damaging the compressor
vanes. However, even with this precaution, FOD is still a menace to
turbine engine operation, as shown in figure 1.8.
Figure 1.8. Compressor Foreign Object Damage.
b. High temperatures. In the combustion chamber, the
temperature is raised to about 3, 500° F. in the hottest part of the
flame. Because this temperature is above the melting point of most
metals, proper cooling and flame dilution must be employed at all
times to insure that the engine is not damaged.
c. Slow acceleration. The acceleration rate of a turbine
engine is very slow in comparison with that of a reciprocating
engine. The pilot must be aware of the time lag in the turbine
engine acceleration between the instant when power is requested and
when power is available.
20
d. High fuel consumption. Turbine engines are very
uneconomical when it comes to the amount of fuel they consume. The
Lycoming T53 turbine engine, for instance, uses approximately 1.5
gallons per minute of fuel. Compare it to a reciprocating engine of
approximately the same horsepower which has a fuel consumption rate
of 1 gallon per minute.
e. Cost. The initial cost of a turbine engine is very high
when compared to the cost of a reciprocating engine. For example the
T53L13B
engine costs about $63,000, and the cost of a reciprocating
engine of approximately the same horsepower is $20,000.
1.14. SUMMARY
The two turbine engines commonly in use today are the turbojet
and turboshaft. The turbine has surpassed the piston engine in
design efficiency. The advantages of the gas turbine are a high
powertoweight
ratio, less maintenance, and low oil consumption.
Because of the small frontal area, turbines have less aerodynamic
drag. The disadvantages are foreign object damage to the compressor
vanes, high operating temperatures, and high fuel consumption. The
turbine also has a slower acceleration rate. Because of the high
operating rpm, all rotating parts must be in perfect balance. The
cost to manufacture a turbine is much higher than that of a
reciprocating engine. Aircraft designers have always been limited by
the powerplants available for use on aircraft of new design. Their
constant plea has been for higher power, less weight, and a more
compact design; the turbine engine has been the answer to some, if
not all, of their pleas.
Section III. Major Engine Sections
1.15. GENERAL
Because of the many types of turbine engines, it is not
possible to list all the major components and have the list apply to
all engines. Several components are common to most turbine engines,
and a knowledge of these will be helpful in developing a further
understanding of aviation gas turbine engines. This section
discusses the major engine sections individually.
1.16. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY
Engine terminology must be explained at this point to enable
you to understand the terms used in discussing gasturbineengine
21

operating theory explained in this course. Directional references
are shown in figure 1.9. Table I shows engine symbols and
abbreviations commonly used.
Figure 1.9. Directional References.
a. Directional references. Front or forward cold
end of
engine. Rear or aft hot
end of engine. Right and left determined
by viewing the engine from the rear. Bottom determined
by the location of the combustor drain valve. Top directly
opposite, or 180 degrees from the combustor drain valve.
These directional references hold true for most gas
turbine engines. On some the power shaft is at the end where the
exhaust gas is expelled. An engine of this design is the T73
installed on the CH54
flying crane.
b. Engine station notation. The engine is divided into
stations to designate temperature (T) or pressure (P) measuring
locations. Figure 1.10 shows a T53L13,
labeling the engine
stations. Any time a number is placed after the letter T or P, it
denotes a specific location in the engine.
Example: The symbol T3, denotes the relative temperature at
a specific location on the engine.
22
Table I. Commonly Used Gas Turbine Engine Symbols and Abbreviations
c. Engine speed notation. The rotational speed of the engine
is represented by the capital letter N. The first rotating mass, the
gas producer has the symbol N1. Any time a number is placed after the
letter N it denotes a specific system on the gas turbine engine.
1.17. ENGINE MODEL DESIGNATIONS
Letter designators are used to differentiate the jetpropulsion
engines from reciprocating engines. A letternumber
combination identifies each type of the various gas turbine engines.
The J series designates true turbojet engines; the T designates
turboprop or turboshaft engines; and the TF, turbofan engines.
One of these letters or letter combinations begins each engine
model number, each part of which has a special significance. For
example, in the engine model number T53L13,
the T means turboshaft;
the 53 is simply the number assigned to this model by the Air Force
when the engine was accepted or used experimentally. The Air
Force/Army designation numbers are odd, while engines developed
originally for the Navy get even numbers. The letter L is added by
the manufacturer (in this case the Lycoming Division of
23
Figure 1.10. Engine Stations.
24
AVCO) and the 13
is referred to as the "dash number.” These are
also always odd numbers, if the engine was developed for the Air
Force/Army. The dash number designates the particular version of
this model engine. When a production model is improved by major
modifications, the dash number is changed.
In the past the Army has been getting their engines through
the Air Force, using Air Force designators. However, now the Army
has its own series of number designators. The first engine procured
under the new system was the T700GE700
engine. The next engine
developed for the Army will be the T701manufacturer's
codethreedigit
dash number. The engines that were in the Army inventory
previous to this new designator system will keep their present
designators. However, when these models are improved, they will get
the new threedigit
number for a dash number. For example the
improved version of the T53L15
is the T53L701.
1.18. AIR INLET SECTION
The amount of air required by a gas turbine engine is
approximately ten times that of a reciprocating engine. The air
inlet is generally a large, smooth aluminum or magnesium duct which
must be designed to conduct the air into the compressor with minimum
turbulence and restriction. The air inlet section may have a variety
of names according to the desire of the manufacturer. It may be
called the front frame and accessory section, the air inlet assembly,
the front bearing support and shroud assembly, or any other term
descriptive of its function. Usually, the outer shell of the front
frame is joined to the center portion by braces that are often called
struts. The antiicing
system directs compressor discharge air into
these struts. The temperature of this air prevents the formation of
ice that might prove damaging to the engine. Antiicing
systems are
discussed further in the chapter covering the engines they may be
installed on. Figure 1.11 illustrates the variety of inlet duct
designs of Army aircraft.
25
Figure 1.11. Inlet Duct Variations.
26
1.19. COMPRESSOR SECTION
The compressor is the section of the engine that produces an
increase in air pressure. It is made up of rotating and stationary
vane assemblies. The first stage compressor rotor blades accelerate
the air rearward into the first stage vane assemblies. The first
stage vane assemblies slow the air down and direct it into the second
stage compressor rotor blades. The second stage compressor rotor
blades accelerate the air rearward into the second stage vane
assemblies, and so on through the compressor rotor blades and vanes
until air enters the diffuser section. The highest total air
velocity is at the inlet of the diffuser. As the air passes rearward
through the diffuser, the velocity of the air decreases and the
static pressure increases. The highest static pressure is at the
diffuser outlet.
The compressor rotor may be thought of as an air pump. The
volume of air pumped by the compressor rotor is basically
proportional to the rotor rpm. However, air density, the weight of a
given volume of air, also varies this proportional relationship. The
weight per unit volume of air is affected by temperature, compressor
air inlet pressure, humidity, and ram air pressure*. If compressor
air inlet temperature is increased, air density is reduced. If
compressor air inlet pressure is increased, air density is increased.
If humidity increases, air density is decreased. Humidity, by
comparison with temperature, and pressure changes, has a very small
effect on density. With increased forward speed, ram air pressure
increases and air temperature and pressure increase.
The following is an example of how air density affects
compressor efficiency of the T62 gas turbine. At 100 percent N1 rpm,
the compressor rotor pumps approximately 40.9 cubic feet of air per
second. At standard day static sea level conditions, 59° F outside
air temperature and 29.92" Hg barometric pressure, with 0 percent
relative humidity and 0 ram air, air density is .07651 pound per
cubic foot. Under these conditions, 40.9 cubic feet per second times
.07651 pound per cubic feet equals approximately 3.13 pounds per
second air flow through the engine. If the air density at the
compressor inlet is less than on a standard day, the weight of air
flow per second through the engine is less than 3.13 pounds per
second. If N1 is less than 100 percent rpm on a standard day, the
weight of air flow per second through the engine will be less than 3.
13 due to decreased volume flow at lower rpm. Because of this, N1 rpm
varies
________________
*ram air pressure free
stream air pressure provided by the forward
motion of the engine.
27

with the power output. If output power is increased, N1 rpm will
increase and vice versa. Thus, the weight of air pumped by the
compressor rotor is determined by rpm and air density.
Compressor efficiency determines the power necessary to create
the pressure rise of a given airflow, and it affects the temperature
change which takes place in the combustion chamber. Therefore, the
compressor is one of the most important components of the gas turbine
engine because its efficient operation is the key to overall engine
performance. The following subparagraphs discuss the three basic
compressors used in gas turbine engines: the centrifugalflow,
the
axialflow,
and axialcentrifugalflow
compressors. The axialcentrifugalflow
compressor is a combination of the other two and
operates with characteristics of both.
a. Centrifugalflow
compressor. Figure 1.12 shows the basic
components of a centrifugalflow
compressor: rotor, stator, and
compressor manifold.
Figure 1.12. Typical Singlestage
Centrifugal Compressor
As the impeller (rotor)
revolves at high speed, air is
drawn into the blades near the
center. Centrifugal force
accelerates this air and causes
it to move outward from the axis
of rotation toward the rim of the
rotor where it is forced through
the diffuser section at high
velocity and high kinetic energy.
The pressure rise is produced by
reducing the velocity of the air
in the diffuser, thereby
converting velocity energy to
pressure energy. The centrifugal
compressor is capable of a
relatively high compression ratio
per stage. This compressor is
not used on larger engines
because of size and weight.
Because of the high tip speed problem in this design, the
centrifugal compressor finds its greatest use on the smaller engines
where simplicity, flexibility of operation, and ruggedness are the
principal requirements rather than small frontal area and ability to
handle high airflows and pressures with low loss of efficiency.
28

b. Axialflow
compressor. The air is compressed, as the name
implies, in a direction parallel to the axis of the engine. The
compressor is made of a series of rotating airfoils called rotor
blades, and a stationary set of airfoils called stator vanes. A
stage consists of two rows of blades, one rotating and one
stationary. The entire compressor is made up of a series of
alternating rotor and stator vane stages as shown in figure 1.13.
Figure 1.13. Axialflow
Compressor.
Axial flow compressors have the advantage of being capable
of very high compression ratios with relatively high efficiencies;
Figure 1.14. Compressor Efficiencies
and Pressure
Ratios.
see figure 1.14. Because of the
small frontal area created by
this type of compressor, it is
ideal for installation on highspeed
aircraft. Unfortunately,
the delicate blading and close
tolerances, especially toward the
rear of the compressor where the
blades are smaller and more
numerous per stage, make this
compressor highly susceptible to
foreignobject
damage. Because
of the close fits required
29
for efficient airpumping
and higher compression ratios, this type of
compressor is very complex and very expensive to manufacture. For
these reasons the axialflow
design finds its greatest application
where required efficiency and output override the considerations of
cost, simplicity, and flexibility of operation. However, due to
modern technology, the cost of the small axialflow
compressor, used
in Army aircraft, is coming down.
c. Axialcentrifugalflow
compressor. The axialcentrifugalflow
compressor, also called the dual compressor, is a combination of
the two types, using the same operating characteristics. Figure 1.15
shows the compressor used in the T53 turbine engine. Most of the gas
turbine engines used in Army aircraft are of the dual compressor
design. Usually it consists of a fiveor
sevenstage
axialflow
compressor and one centrifugalflow
compressor. The dual compressors
are mounted on the same shaft and turn in the same direction and at
the same speed. The centrifugal compressor is mounted aft of the
axial compressor. The axial compressor contains numerous airfoilshaped
blades and vanes that accomplish the task of moving the air
mass into the combustor at an elevated pressure.
As the air is drawn into the engine, its direction of flow
is changed by the inlet guide vanes. The angle of entry is
established to ensure that the air flow onto the rotating compressor
blades is within the stallfree
(angle of attack) range. Air
pressure or velocity is not changed as a result of this action. As
the air passes from the trailing edge of the inlet guide vanes, its
direction of flow is changed due to the rotational effect of the
compressor. This change of airflow direction is similar to the
action that takes place when a car is driven during a rain or snow
storm. The rain or snow falling in a vertical direction strikes the
windshield at an angle due to the horizontal velocity of the car.
In conjunction with the change of airflow direction, the
velocity of the air is increased. Passing through the rotating
compressor blades, the velocity is decreased, and a gain in pressure
is obtained. When leaving the trailing edge of the compressor
blades, the velocity of the air mass is again increased by the
rotational effect of the compressor. The angle of entry on to the
stationary stator vanes results from this rotational effect as it did
on the airflow onto the compressor.
Passing through the stationary stator vanes the air
velocity is again decreased resulting in an increase in pressure.
The combined action of the rotor blades and stator vanes results in an
30
Figure 1.15. AxialCentrifugalFlow
Compressor.
31
increase in air pressure;
combined they constitute one stage of
compression. This action continues through all stages of the axial
compressor. To retain this pressure buildup, the airflow is
delivered, stage by stage, into a continually narrowing airflow path.
After passing from the last set of stator vanes the air mass passes
through exit guide vanes. These vanes direct the air onto the
centrifugal impeller.
The centrifugal impeller increases the velocity of the air
mass as it moves it in a radial direction. The axialcentrifugalflow
compressor is discussed further in chapter 4.
d. Compressor stall. Gas turbine engines are designed to
avoid the pressure conditions that allow engine surge to develop, but
the possibility of surge still exists in engines that are improperly
adjusted or have been abused. Engine surge occurs any time the
combustion chamber pressure exceeds that in the diffuser, and it is
identified by a popping sound which is issued from the inlet.
Because there is more than one cause for surge, the resultant sound
can range from a single carburetor backfire pop to a machinegun sound.
Engine surge is caused by
a stall on the airfoil surfaces
of the rotating blades or
stationary vanes of the
compressor. The stall can occur
on individual blades or vanes or,
simultaneously, on groups of
them. To understand how this can
induce engine surge, the causes
and effects of stall on any
airfoil must be examined.
All airfoils are designed
to provide lift by producing a
lower pressure on the convex
(suction) side of the airfoil
than on the concave (pressure)
side. A characteristic of any
airfoil is that lift increases
with an increasing angle of
attack, but only up to a critical
angle. Beyond this critical
angle of attack, lift falls off
rapidly. This is due largely to
the separation of the airflow
from the suction surface of the
airfoil, as shown in the sketch.
This phenomenon
32
is known as stall. All pilots are familiar with this condition and
its consequences as it applies to the wing of an aircraft. The stall
that takes place on the fixed or rotating blades of a compressor is
the same as the stalling phenomenon of an aircraft wing.
1.20. COMPRESSOR CONSTRUCTION
Centrifugalflow
compressors are usually made of titanium.
The diffuser is generally manufactured of a stainless steel alloy. A
close fit is important between the compressor and its case to obtain
maximum compressor efficiency. Correct rotor assembly balancing is
essential for safe operation because of the high rpm. Balancing the
rotor can be accomplished by removing metal from specified areas of
the compressor or by using balancing weights installed in holes in
the hub of the compressor. On some engines where the compressor and
turbine wheel are balanced as a unit, special bolts and nuts having
slight variations in weight are used.
Axialflow
compressors are constructed of many different
materials, depending upon the load and temperature under which the
unit must operate. The rotor blades are generally cast of stainlesssteel
alloy. Some manufacturers use mdybdenum coated titanium blades
to dampen vibrations on some stages of rotor blades. The clearance
between the rotor blades and the outer case is most important. Some
companies coat the inner surface of the compressor case with a soft
material that can be worn away by the blades as they expand because
of the heat generated from compressing the air. This type of
compressor uses the "wearfit"
method to form its own clearance
between the compressor case and the rotor blade tip.
Methods of attaching the blade to the disk or hub vary between
manufacturers, with the majority using some variation of the dovetail
method to hold the rotor blades to the disk. Various other
methods are used to anchor the blades in place. Some blades do not
have a tight fit in the disk, but rather are seated by centrifugal
force during engine operation. By allowing the blades to move,
vibrational stress is reduced during start and shutdown. Stator
vanes, shown in figure 1.16, can be either solid or hollow
construction, and are connected together at their tips by a shroud.
This shrouding serves two purposes. First, it provides support, and
second, it provides the necessary air seal between rotating and
stationary parts. Most manufacturers use the split compressor cases,
while some others favor a weldment, forming a continuous case. The
advantages of the split case lie in the fact that the compressor and
stator blades are readily available to inspection. The onepiece
case offers simplicity and strength because it is one piece; in most
33

instances, it is a principal structural part of the engine and is
usually made of cast aluminum, magnesium, or steel. Figures 1.16 and
1.17 show shrouded compressor stators in both the split case and the
onepiece
case.
Figure 1.16. Shrouded Compressor Stators.
34

Figure 1.17. OnePiece
Compressor Case.
1.21. COMBUSTION SECTION
Today, three basic combustion chambers are in use. They are
the annular combustion chamber, the can type, and the combination of
the two called the canannular.
Variations of these basic systems
are used in a number of engines. The three systems are discussed
individually in the following subparagraphs. The most commonly used
gas turbine engine in Army aircraft is the annular reverseRow
type.
The combustion section contains the combustion chambers, igniter
plugs, and fuel nozzles or vaporizing tubes. It is designed to burn
a fuelair
mixture and deliver the combusted gases to the turbine at
a temperature which will not exceed the allowable limit at the
turbine inlet.
Fuel is introduced at the front end of the burner in a highly
atomized spray from the fuel nozzles. Combustion air flows in around
the fuel nozzle and mixes with the fuel to form a correct fuelair
mixture. This is called primary air and represents approximately 25
percent of total air taken into the engine. The fuelair
mixture
which is to be burned is a ratio of 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel
by weight. The remaining 75 percent of the air is used to form an
air blanket around the burning gases and to lower the temperature.
This temperature may reach as high as 3500° F. By using 75 percent of
the air for cooling, the temperature operating range can be brought
down to about half, so the turbine section will not be destroyed by
excessive heat. The air used for burning is
35
called primary airand
that for cooling is secondary air. The
secondary air is controlled and directed by holes and louvers in the
combustion chamber liner.
Igniter plugs function only during starting, being cut out of
the circuit as soon as combustion is selfsupporting.
On engine
shutdown, or, if the engine fails to start, the combustion chamber
drain valve, a pressureactuated
valve, automatically drains any
remaining unburned fuel from the combustion chamber. All combustion
chambers contain the same basic elements: a casing or outer shell, a
perforated inner liner or flame tube, fuel nozzles, and some means of
initial ignition. The combustion chamber must be of light
construction and is designed to burn fuel completely in a high
velocity airstream. The combustion chamber liner is an extremely
critical engine part because of the high temperatures of the flame.
The liner is usually constructed of welded highnickel
steel. The
most severe operating periods in combustion chambers are encountered
in the engine idling and maximum rpm ranges. Sustained operation
under these conditions must be avoided to prevent combustion chamber
liner failure.
a. The annulartype
combustion chamber shown in figure 1.18
is used in engines of the axialcentrifugalflow
compressor de1.
ANNULAR TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER
2. COMBUSTION CHAMBER HOUSING ASSEMBLY
Figure 1.18. Annulartype
Combustion Chamber.
36

sign. The annular combustion chamber permits building an engine of a
small and compact design. Instead of individual combustion chambers,
the primary compressed air is introduced into an annular space formed
by a chamber liner around the turbine assembly. A space is left
between the outer liner wall and the combustion chamber housing to
permit the flow of secondary cooling air from the compressor.
Primary air is mixed with the fuel for combustion. Secondary
(cooling) air reduces the temperature of the hot gases entering the
turbine to the proper level by forming a blanket of cool air around
these hot gases.
The annular combustion chamber offers the advantages of a
larger combustion volume per unit of exposed area and material
weight, a smaller exposed area resulting in lower pressure losses
through the unit, and less weight and complete pressure equalization.
Figure 1.19. Cantype
Combustion
Chamber (Cutaway).
b. The cantype
combustion chamber is one made up
of individual combustion
chambers. This type of
combustion chamber is so arranged
that air from the compressor
enters each individual chamber
through the adapter. Each
individual chamber is composed of
two cylindrical tubes, the
combustion chamber liner and the
outer combustion chamber, shown
in figure 1.19. Combustion takes
place within the liner. Airflow
into the combustion area is
controlled by small louvers
located in the inner dome, and by
round holes and elongated louvers
along the length of the liner.
Airflow into the combustion area
is controlled by small louvers
located in the inner dome, and by
round holes elongated louvers
along the length of the liner.
Through these openings flows the air that is used in combustion and
cooling. This air also prevents carbon deposits from forming on the
inside of the liner. This is important, because carbon deposits can
block critical air passages and disrupt airflow along the liner walls
causing high metal temperatures and short burner life.
37
Ignition is accomplished during the starting cycle. The
igniter plug is located in the combustion liner adjacent to the start
fuel nozzle. The Army cantype
engine employs a single cantype
combustor.
c. Canannular
combustion chamber. This combustion chamber
uses characteristics of both annular and cantype
combustion
chambers. The canannular
combustion chamber consists of an outer
shell, with a number of individual cylindrical liners mounted about
the engine axis as shown in figure 1.20. The combustion chambers are
completely surrounded by the airflow that enters the liners through
various holes and louvers. This air is mixed with fuel which has
been sprayed under pressure from the fuel nozzles. The fuelair
mixture is ignited by igniter plugs, and the flame is then carried
through the crossover tubes to the remaining liners. The inner
casing assembly is both a support and a heat shield; also, oil lines
run through it.
Figure 1.20. CanAnnular
Combustion Chamber.
38
1.22. TURBINE SECTION
A portion of the kinetic energy of the expanding gases is
extracted by the turbine section, and this energy is transformed into
shaft horsepower which is used to drive the compressor and
accessories. In turboprop and turboshaft engines, additional turbine
rotors are designed to extract all of the energy possible from the
remaining gases to drive a powershaft.
a. Types of turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers have
concentrated on the axialflow
turbine shown in figure 1.21. This
turbine is used in all gasturbinepowered
aircraft in the Army
today. However, some manufacturers are building engines with a
radial inflow turbine, illustrated in figure 1.22. The radial inflow
turbine
Figure 1.21. Axialflow
Turbine Rotor.
Figure 1.22. Radial Inflow
Turbine.
has the advantage of ruggedness
and simplicity, and it is
relatively inexpensive and easy
to manufacture when compared to
the axialflow
turbine. The
radial flow turbine is similar in
design and construction to the
centrifugalflow
compressor
described in paragraph 1.19a.
Radial turbine wheels used for
small
39
engines are well suited for a higher range of specific speeds and
work at relatively high efficiency.
The axialflow
turbine consists of two main elements, a set of
stationary vanes followed by a turbine rotor. Axialflow
turbines
may be of the singlerotor
or multiplerotor
type. A stage consists
of two main components: a turbine nozzle and a turbine rotor or
wheel, as shown in figure 1.21. Turbine blades are of two basic
types, the impulse and the reaction. Modern aircraft gas turbines
use blades that have both impulse and reaction sections, as shown in
figure 1.23.
Figure 1.23. ImpulseReaction
Turbine Blade.
The stationary part of the turbine assembly consists of a row
of contoured vanes set at a predetermined angle to form a series of
small nozzles which direct the gases onto the blades of the turbine
rotor. For this reason, the stationary vane assembly is usually
called the turbine nozzle, and the vanes are called nozzle guide
vanes.
b. Singlerotor
turbine. Some gas turbine engines use a
singlerotor
turbine, with the power developed by one rotor. This
arrangement is used on engines where low weight and compactness are
necessary. A singlerotor,
singlestage
turbine engine is shown in
figure 1.24, and a multiplerotor,
multiplestage
turbine engine is
shown in figure 1.25.
c. Multiplerotor
turbine. In the multiplerotor
turbine the
power is developed by two or more rotors. As a general rule,
multiplerotor
turbines increase the total power generated in a unit
of small diameter. Generally the turbines used in Army aircraft
engines have multiple rotors. Figure 1.26 illustrates a multistage,
multiplerotor
turbine assembly.
40
Figure 1.24. Singlerotor,
Singlestage
Turbine.
Figure 1.25. Multiplerotor,
Multiplestage
Turbine.
Figure 1.26. Multirotor Multistage
Turbine.
1.23. TURBINE CONSTRUCTION
The turbine rotor is one of the most highly stressed parts in
the engine. It operates at a temperature of approximately 1,700° F.
Because of the high rotational speeds, over 40,000 rpm for the
41
smaller engines, the turbine rotor is under severe centrifugal loads.
Consequently, the turbine disk is made of specially alloyed steel,
usually containing large percentages of chromium, nickel, and cobalt.
The turbine rotor assembly is made of two main parts, the disk and
blades.
Nozzle vanes may be either cast or forged. Some vanes are
made hollow to allow cooling air to flow through them. All nozzle
assemblies are made of very highstrength
steel that withstands the
direct impact of the hot gases flowing from the combustion chamber.
The turbine blades are attached to the disk by using the "fir
tree" design, shown in figure 1.27, to allow for expansion between
the disk and the blade while holding the blade firmly to the disk
against centrifugal loads. The blade is kept from moving axially
either by rivets or special locking devices. Turbine rotors are of
the opentip
type as shown in figure 1.27, or the shroud type as
shown in figure 1.28.
Figure 1.27. Turbine Wheel
Open Tip.
Figure 1.28. Turbine Blade
“Fir Tree Root”
Shroud.
The shroud acts to prevent gas losses over the blade tip and
excessive blade vibrations. Distortion under severe loads tends to
twist the blade toward low pitch, and the shroud helps to reduce this
tendency. The shrouded blade has an aerodynamic advantage in that
thinner blades can be used with the support of the shroud.
Shrouding, however, requires that the turbine run cooler or at
reduced rpm because of the extra mass at the tip.
Blades are forged or cast from alloy steel and machined and
carefully inspected before being certified for use. Manufacturers
stamp a "moment weight" number on the blade to retain rotor
42
balance when replacement is necessary. Turbine blade maintenance and
replacement are covered in chapter 3.
1.24. EXHAUST SECTION
The hot gases are exhausted overboard through the exhaust
diffuser section. Internally, this section supports the power
turbine and aft portion of the powershaft. The exhaust diffuser is
composed of an inner and outer housing, separated by hollow struts
across the exhaust passage. The inner housing is capped by either a
tailcone or a cover plate which provides a chamber for cooling the
powershaft bearing. A typical exhaust diffuser section is shown in
figure 1.29.
Figure 1.29. Exhaust Diffuser Section.
Turboshaft engines used in helicopters do not develop thrust
by use of the exhaust duct. If thrust were developed by the engine
exhaust gas, it would be impossible to maintain a stationary hover;
therefore, helicopters use divergent ducts. These ducts reduce gas
velocity and dissipate any thrust remaining in the exhaust gases. On
fixed wing aircraft, the exhaust duct may be the convergent type,
which accelerates the remaining gases to produce thrust which adds
43
additional shaft horsepower to the engine rating. The combined
thrust and shaft horsepower is called equivalent shaft horsepower
(ESHP).
Figure 1.30. Divergent Exhaust Duct.
1.25. SUMMARY
The gas turbine engine has five major sections: inlet,
compressor, combustion, turbine, and exhaust. Engine terminology
includes directional references, engine stations, and model
designations.
Gas turbine engine construction is not limited to one type of
compressor. The compressor may be either centrifugal or axial or a
combination of the two. Compressors are made in single or multiple
stage assemblies.
Three basic types of combustion chambers are in use: the
annular, can, or a combination of the two called canannular
or
cannular.
44
Gas turbine engines may use either an axialflow
turbine or a
radialinflow
turbine. The turbine section may have a singleor
multiplestage
turbine. The hot exhaust gases are exhausted
overboard through the exhaust section. Exhaust ducts used on
helicopters are divergent. The ducts used on fixedwing
aircraft may
be of the convergent type.
45

Chapter 2
SYSTEMS AND ACCESSORIES
2.1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduces the fundamental systems and
accessories of the gas turbine engine. Each one of these systems
must be present to have an operating turbine engine. Section I
describes the fuel system and related components that are necessary
for proper fuel metering to the engine.
The second section discusses the theory and components of the
lubricating system. Oil is the lifeblood of any engine. If the oil
supply to the bearings should cease, within a matter of seconds the
lubricating films would break down and cause scoring, seizing, and
burning of the vital moving parts.
The third section tells of the ignition system used in the gas
turbine engines and of various cockpit instruments used to measure
engine performance.
Section I. Fuel Systems and Components
2.2. GENERAL
The fuel system consists of the fuel control, speed governors,
fuel pumps, starting fuel nozzles, main fuel system flow divider,
main fuel manifold, and vaporizing tubes or nozzles. Fuel is
conducted between these components by flexible or rigid lines. The
fuel system must supply clean, accurately metered fuel to the
combustion chambers. All fuel systems have basically the same
components; how these specific units do their jobs differs radically
from one engine to another. Some systems incorporate features that
are not necessary to the metering of fuel, such as fuel and oil heat
exchangers, use of fuel pressure to operate variable inlet guide
vanes, and compressor bleed mechanisms. It is the purpose of this
section to illustrate typical fuel systems so that the reader may
obtain some idea of the route of fuel and location of the components
that make up the system. Figure 2.1 shows a typical schematic of a
gas turbine engine fuel system.
46

Figure 2.1. Fuel System Schematic Diagram.
47
2.3. FUEL CONTROLS
The principles and operation of fuel controls used on current
engines are discussed in this paragraph. Depending upon the type of
engine and the performance expected of it, fuel controls may range
from simple valves to automatic computing controls containing
hundreds of intricate parts.
Strictly speaking, a pilot of a gasturbinepowered
aircraft
does not directly control his engine. His command over the engine
corresponds to that of the captain of a ship who obtains engine
response by relaying orders to an engineer below deck who, in turn,
moves the throttle of the engine. But before he moves the throttle,
he monitors certain operating pressures, temperatures, and rpm that
are not apparent to the captain. The engineering officer then refers
to a chart and computes a fuel flow or throttle change which will not
allow the engine to exceed its operating limitations. If you think
of the pilot as the captain of the ship, then think of the automatic
controls as the engineer. They, too, monitor operating pressures,
temperatures, and rpm, and make the necessary fuel and throttle
adjustments.
Fuel controls can be divided into two basic groups:
hydromechanical, and electronic. There are as many variations in
controls as there are engines. Although each type of fuel control
has its particular advantage, most controls in use today are
hydromechanical. Some fuel controls are extremely complex devices
composed of speed governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems,
and sensing pickups.
This section limits discussion mainly to fuel control theory
of the hydromechanical type. A schematic of one is shown in figure
2.2. A fuel control in the simplest form consists of a plain
metering valve to regulate fuel flow to the engine. A
hydromechanical fuel control consists of the following main
components, but it is not limited to only these.
1. Pump to pressurize fuel.
2. Governors to control rpm.
3. Relief valves to protect the control.
4. Manual control systems (emergency control system).
5. Fuel shutoff valve.
48

Figure 2.2. Hydromechanical Fuel Control Schematic.
49

Most modern fuel control units meter the flow of fuel by
keeping the pressure drop or difference across the metering valve a
constant value, while varying the orifice of the metering valve.
Another way to control fuel is to keep the valve orifice a constant
size and vary the pressure acting upon the fluid. The operation of a
gas turbine requires that a number of variable conditions be given
careful thought to provide for safe, efficient operation. Among
these are engine rpm, acceleration, exhaust gas temperature (egt),
compressor inlet temperature, compressor discharge pressure, and
throttle or power control setting. All these conditions affect or
are affected by fuel flow, which is increased only to the point where
the limiting temperature is reached. As the engine accelerates and
airflow through the engine increases, more fuel is added. If turbine
inlet temperature were the only engine limitation, a temperature
pickup sensing this temperature could be used. However, it is also
necessary to avoid the operating range that would cause a compressor
surge and stall. Because more than one factor limits engine
operation, it is necessary to schedule the accelerating fuel in
accordance with a combination of these factors. Because turbine
engine compressors are susceptible to surges and stalls, a control
with a longer acceleration time is used than is needed for a
reciprocating engine. This acceleration time is known as a "lag,"
and the pilot must be aware of the time it takes the engine to
accelerate and give him the power change he requires. Compressor
discharge pressure or burner pressure is commonly used as the
variable for these controls, since they vary both with engine speed
and inlet air temperature. By evaluating these variable conditions,
a fair indication of the amount of fuel which can be burned without
exceeding engine limitations is obtained.
Two fuel control systems are discussed in the following
subparagraphs.
a. Automatic control system. The amount of fuel required to
run the engine at rated rpm varies with the inlet air temperature and
pressure. For example, it requires less fuel to run the engine on a
hot day than on a cold day. To relieve the pilot of the necessity of
resetting the power lever to compensate for changes in outside air
temperature and pressure, a speed governor is used. A simple speed
governor consists of flyweights balanced by a spring. When the
engine is running unloaded, at rated speed, the metering valve is
open only far enough to supply the small amount of fuel required. If
a load is applied to the engine, the speed decreases. This decrease
in rpm causes the flyweights to move in under the force of the spring
tension and the fuel valve to open wider and admit more fuel. With
the additional fuel, the engine picks up speed again, and, as the
rated
50

speed is reached, the flyweights move the fuel valve in the closing
direction until the proper steadystate
fuel flow is reached.
b. Manual (emergency) control system. When the governor
control switch in the cockpit is moved from the automatic position to
the manual (emergency), a valve is actuated in the fuel control, and
fuel is redirected to the manual system metering valve. The throttle
in a helicopter is of the motorcycle twistgrip
type. When the
governor is in the automatic position the throttle is rolled full
open and left there, with the fuel control making all fuelflow
changes automatically. If the automatic fuel control fails, the
pilot switches to the emergency mode and takes manual control of the
throttle, which is mechanically linked to the manual metering valve.
The manual throttle control has no compensation for altitude or
temperature, and it has no protection against an engine overspeed.
Keep in mind that so far the discussion has been on
principles of operation, and any specific fuel control may differ.
2.4. FUEL PUMP
Main fuel pressure pumps for gas turbine engines generally
have one or two geartype,
positivedisplacement,
highpressure
elements. Each of these elements discharges fuel through a check
valve to a common discharge port. Thus, if one element fails, the
remaining element continues to supply sufficient fuel for engine
operation. On some engines, the fuel pump is built in to the fuel
control. However, on other engines the fuel pump may be a separate
component.
2.5. STARTINGFUEL
SYSTEM
Fuel flows through an external line from the fuel control to
the startingfuel
solenoid. During the starting sequence, the pilot
actuates the startfuel
solenoid switch in the cockpit. The solenoid
actuates the valve to the open position, then fuel flows through an
external line to the startfuel
manifold. The startfuel
nozzles are
attached to the manifold; the number of nozzles varies according to
engine design. The nozzles introduce atomized fuel in the combustion
chamber during the starting sequence. After the engine has attained
a specified speed, the main fuel starts to flow automatically. After
the engine is running on the main fuel system, the start fuel system
is shut off. A starting fuel system is shown in Figure 2.3.
51

Figure 2.3. Starting Fuel System.
2.6. MAIN FUEL SYSTEM
Main fuel is delivered from the fuel control to the main fuel
manifold assembly by external lines. The main fuel manifold delivers
fuel to the fuel nozzles, which may be of the single or dual orifice
injector type, designed to introduce the fuel into the combustion
chamber. Some earlier engines use fuel vaporizer tubes in place of
the more efficient fuel nozzles.
2.7. FUEL NOZZLES
On most gas turbine engines, fuel is introduced into the
combustion chamber through a fuel nozzle that creates a highly
atomized and accurately shaped spray of fuel suitable for rapid
mixing and combustion. Most engines use either the simplex or the
duplex nozzle. The exception to this is the Lycoming T53L11
engine
which uses vaporizer tubes in place of fuel nozzles. Each type of
nozzle is discussed in the following subparagraphs.
52
a. Simplex nozzle. Figure 2.4 illustrates a typical simplex
nozzle; as its name implies, it is simpler in design than the duplex
nozzle. Its big disadvantage lies in the fact that a single orifice
cannot provide a satisfactory spray pattern with the changes in fuel
pressure.
Figure 2.4. Simplex Fuel Nozzle.
b. Duplex nozzle. Because the fuelflow
divider and the
duplex nozzle work hand in hand, the description of these units is
combined. The chief advantage of the duplex nozzle is its ability to
provide good fuel atomization and proper spray pattern at all fuel
pressures. For the duplex nozzle to work, there must be a fuelflow
divider to separate the fuel into low (primary) and high (secondary)
pressure supplies. Singleentry
duplex nozzles have an internal flow
divider and require only a single fuel manifold, while, as shown in
figure 2.5, dualentry
fuel nozzles require a double fuel manifold.
The flow divider, whether selfcontained
in each nozzle, or installed
separately with the manifold, is usually a springloaded
valve set to
open at a specific fuel pressure. When the pressure is below this
value, the flow divider directs fuel to the primary manifold.
Pressures above this value cause the valve to open and fuel is
allowed to flow in both manifolds. A fuel flow divider is shown in
figure 2.6.
In addition, an air shroud surrounding the nozzle, as
shown in figure 2.7, cools the nozzle tip and improves combustion by
retarding the accumulation of carbon deposits on the face. The
shroud also helps to contain the flame in the center of the liner.
53
Figure 2.5. Dual Entry Duplex Nozzle.
54
Figure 2.6. Fuel Flow Divider. Figure 2.7. Air Shroud.
Figure 2.8. Vaporizing Tube.
A word of caution;
extreme care must be taken when
cleaning or handling the nozzles,
since even the acid on the
fingers may corrode and produce a
spray pattern which is out of
tolerance.
c. Vaporizing tube.
Engines such as the Lycoming T53L11
use vaporizing tubes instead
of injector nozzles. The
vaporizing tube is a Tshaped,
ceramiccoated
pipe, whose exit
faces upstream to the airflow.
Figure 2.8 shows a vaporizing
tube that is used on the T53Lll.
2.8. FUEL FILTERS
Gas turbine engines may
have several fuel filters
installed at various points
throughout the systems, one fuel
filter before the fuel pump and
one on the highpressure
side
after the pump. In most cases
the filter includes a relief
valve set to open at a specified differential pressure (PSID) between
inlet and outlet pressure. This gives the fuel a bypass if the
filter becomes clogged from contamination.
55
More than one kind of filter is used on turbine engines. A
paper cartridge filter is usually used on the lowpressure
side of
the pump. It uses a replaceable paper element, shown in figure 2.9,
capable of filtering out particles larger than 100 microns, or about
the diameter of human hair.
Figure 2.9. Paper Cartridge Fuel Filter.
Figure 2.10. Cylindrical Screen
Filter.
A cylindrical screen
filter is generally used where
the fuel pressure is low. The
filter is constructed of
stainless steel wire mesh cloth
and is capable of filtering out
particles larger than 40 microns.
Such a filter, shown in figure
2.10, may be cleaned, preferably
ultrasonically, and reused.
In addition to the main
line filters, other filtering
elements may be located in the
fuel tanks, fuel control, fuel
nozzles, and just about any other
place fuel is routed.
56
2.9. PRESSURIZING AND DRAIN DUMP VALVES
Until sufficient pressure is attained in the fuel control to
compute the fuel flow schedules, flow to the main fuel nozzle is
prevented by the pressurizing and drain dump valve. This valve also
drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown to prevent postshutdown
fires, and it traps fuel in the upstream portion of the system to
keep the fuel control primed to permit faster starts.
All manufacturers install a combustion chamber drain valve in
the combustion section. During normal engine operation this valve is
closed. The drain valve is located at the lowest part of the
combustion chamber. When the combustion pressure in the chamber
drops below a specified minimum, usually a few pounds per square
inch, this valve opens and drains any fuel remaining after a false or
aborted start. The fuel drained from this valve is dumped overboard.
2.10. FUEL OILCOOLER
Some turbine engines use a fuel oilcooler
or heat exchanger
to cool the lubricating oil. This unit is discussed under the
lubrication system because its prime function is to help cool the
oil. It consists of a cylindrical oil chamber surrounded by a jacket
through which the fuel passes. Heat from the oil is transferred to
the fuel via conduction*. Figure 2.11 shows a typical fuel oilcooler.
Figure 2.11. Fuel OilCooler.
________________
*See glossary.
57

2.11. SUMMARY
The fuel system must supply clean, accurately metered fuel to
the combustion chamber. Most turbine engine fuel systems have the
same components: fuel control, pressure pumps, fuel flow divider,
manifold, and atomizers. There are two types of fuel controls:
hydromechanical and electronic. Enginedriven
fuel pumps are highpressure,
positivedisplacement,
gear type pumps, and the fuel
nozzles are either simplex or duplex. However, some engines use
vaporizer tubes in place of fuel nozzles. Some gas turbine engines
use a fuel oilcooler
to cool the oil.
Section II. Lubrication Systems
2.12. GENERAL
During the first few years of gas turbine experience,
lightweight, petroleumbase
oil was suitable for gas turbines as well
as other types of engines. Most of the early engines used
lubricating oil conforming to MILO6081A,
Grade 1010. Engines
requiring an extremely light oil were operated on MILO3519,
Grade
1005. These were conventional petroleum oils of high quality and
light weight which met the requirements of all the older engines.
Because of the continuous demand for greater power, gas
turbine engines have been designed to operate at higher temperatures
and pressure ratios. Some gas turbine engine oil temperatures
encountered are considerably above the flash point of the petroleum
oils. Because of this, a high temperature lubricant had to be
developed. The oil used in all Army gas turbine engines is MILL23699,
or MILL7808.
These are synthetic lubricants which have wide
operating ranges and load carrying capabilities. The MILL7808
is
used in engines operating below 25
° F. OAT, and MILL23699
is used
when temperatures are above 25
° F. This section discusses the
various components that make up a typical lubricating system.
2.13. LUBRICATING SYSTEMS
Lubricating systems for modern gasturbine
engines are
relatively simple in design and operation, but their function is of
vital importance. The principal purposes of the lubricating system
are to clean, reduce friction, and to cool the bearing surfaces. The
main units of the typical system are the reservoir or oil tank, the
pressure pump, scavenger pumps, filters, oil cooler, and spray oil
jets. A schematic illustration of a gas turbine engine oil system is
shown in figure 2.12.
58

Figure 2.12. Engine Oil System Schematic.
59
2.14. OIL TANKS
Most gas turbine engines are of the drysump
type, meaning the
on is stored separately from the engine, or the tank may be attached
to a structural part of the engine. Usually constructed of welded
aluminum or steel, it can contain a venting system, a deaerator
(baffles) to separate air from the oil. Some systems use an oil
level transmitter to indicate quantity, where others have a dipstick
or visual sight gage.
2.15. PRESSURE PUMPS
Oil pumps for turbine engines are usually of the positivedisplacement
gear type, with a relief valve to prevent excessive
pressure. A modified geartype
pump is called the "gerotor pump."
The geartype
pump consists of a driving and driven gear. The
pump is driven from the engine accessory section and causes the oil
to pass around the outside of the gears in pockets formed by the gear
teeth and the pump casing. The pressure developed is proportional to
engine rpm up to the point where the pressure relief valve opens and
limits the pressure output of the pump.
Figure 2.13. Gerotor Booster
Pump.
The gerotor pump has two
moving parts, an inner toothed
element meshing with an outer
toothed element. The inner
element has one less tooth than
the outer, and the missing tooth
provides a chamber to move the
fluid from the intake to the
discharge port. Both elements
are mounted eccentrically to each
other, the inner one mounted on
the shaft and the outer one
meshed with it. Figure 2.13 is a
picture of the gerotor pump,
showing both inner and outer
toothed elements.
60

2.16. SCAVENGE PUMPS
Although much larger in total capacity, scavenge pumps are
usually constructed in the same manner as pressure pumps. Engines
are generally provided with several scavenge pumps to drain oil from
various parts of the engine. Often such a pump shares the same
housing as the pressure pump. These pumps are used to draw the oil
from the sumps at the bearings, accessory gearbox housings, and other
drainage points and return the oil back to the tank.
2.17. FILTERS
Three basic oil filters or strainers are made: cartridge,
screendisk,
and screen. These filters are the same design as the
filters used in the fuel system, as covered in paragraph 2.8. The
main objective of a filter is to remove all foreign particles from
the lubricant without creating excessive back pressure against the
pumps. Filters are usually provided with bypass valves to permit the
flow of oil in case the filter becomes clogged.
Figure 2.14. Air Oil Cooler.
2.18. OIL COOLER
Oil coolers for aviation
gasturbine
engines are either
simple oil radiators with air
cooling or the kind that uses
fuel as the cooling medium. The
latter type of unit is used on
the Lycoming T55 engine. The
fuel oilcooling
unit is a heat
exchanger which transfers the
heat in the oil to the fuel
flowing to the fuel nozzles.
Since the fuel flow through the
cooler is much greater than the
oil flow, the fuel is able to
absorb a considerable amount of
heat from the oil, thereby
reducing the size and weight of
the cooler. The fuel oilcooler
is shown in figure 2.11 on page
57. An air cooler is shown in
figure 2.14.
2.19. SPRAY OIL JETS
The lubrication method most generally used is known as a
calibrated system, where oil is specifically controlled by a
calibrated
61
orifice which provides the proper oil flow at all engine operating
speeds. The oil is supplied from the oil pressure pump through
tubing and internal passageways to the spray jets, where the oil is
sprayed on the bearing surfaces.
2.20. SUMMARY
Gas turbine engine oil systems perform three major functions.
They clean and reduce friction, and they cool and dissipate heat.
They also clean the engine interior through the use of oil filters
and strainers. Because much of the aircraft powerplant consists of
moving parts, lubricants are needed to overcome friction caused by
one metal surface sliding or rolling over another. Friction causes
heating of parts, excessive wearing, and useless expenditure of
horsepower. Lubricating systems used in gas turbine engines have oil
tanks, pressure pumps, scavenger pumps, filter, oil coolers, and
spray oil jets. The system most widely used on turbine engines is
the dry sump lubrication system which uses a separate or external oil
tank, located near the engine.
The two kinds of pumps are pressure pumps and scavenge pumps,
the first to put oil into the system, and the second to collect oil
from the system. Filters remove foreign matter from the oil, and
either a fuel oilcooler
or an air cooler takes the heat out of it.
Oil is sprayed on the bearing surface by spray jets.
Section III. Ignition Systems and Engine Instrumentation
2.21. GENERAL
Gas turbine ignition systems fall into three general types:
first, the induction type, that produces high tension voltage by
conventional induction coils; second, the capacitor type that causes
ignition by means of high energy and very high temperature sparks
produced by a condenser discharge; and a third type of ignition
system, not widely adopted, that uses a glow plug.
Most ignition systems used on Army aircraft are of the highenergy
capacitor type. This system has been accepted for gas turbine
engines because it produces high voltage and an exceptionally hot
spark, and the high voltage covers a large area.
The tachometer is one of the cockpit instruments described
briefly in this section. Others are indicating systems for torque,
engine oil pressure, engine oil temperature, exhaust gas temperature,
and fuel pressure.
62

2.22. IGNITION UNIT
Usually, gas turbine engines are equipped with two or more
igniter plugs; however, the smaller engines like the T63 have only
one igniter plug, sometimes called the spark plug. Igniter plugs
serve a purpose similar to the spark plug in a reciprocating engine,
although operation of the ignition system and the igniter plugs is
necessary only for a short period during the engine starting cycle.
On many installations, ignition is initiated simultaneously with the
starter. The ignition cycle takes place several times per second and
continues to operate as long as the ignition switch is on.
The term "high energy" is used in the section to describe the
capacitor type of ignition system. However, the amount of energy
produced is very small. The intense spark is obtained by expending a
small amount of electric energy in a very short time. Energy is the
capacity for doing work. It can be expressed as the product of the
electrical power and time. Gas turbine ignition systems are rated in
joules. The joule is also an expression of electric energy, being
equal to the amount of energy expended in one second by an electric
current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. All other
factors being equal, the temperature of the spark is determined by
the power level reached. A hightemperature
spark can result from
increasing the energy level, or by shortening the duration of the
spark. Increasing the energy level requires a heavier, more bulky
ignition unit, since the energy delivered to the spark plug is only
about 30 to 40 percent of the total energy stored in the capacitor.
Also the higher the current flow, the higher the erosion rate on the
igniter plug electrodes. Furthermore, much of the spark would be
wasted, because ignition takes place in a matter of microseconds. In
a capacitor discharge ignition system, most of the total energy
available to the igniter plugs is dissipated in 10 to 100
microseconds, with up to 80, 000 watts with a spark duration of 50
microseconds. Figure 2.15 shows a wiring schematic of a typical
ignition unit.
WARNING: When working around the ignition unit of the
engine, disconnect the input lead to the
ignition exciter unit. Remove the igniter
plugs from the combustion chamber and ground
them to the engine. You do this to
dissipate any charge that might be left in
the exciter unit.
Some ignition exciter units contain a
very small amount of radioactive material
(cesiumbarium
137) and normally require no
handling
63
precautions. However, severely damaged
units that have been broken open must be
handled with forceps or gloves and disposed
of in accordance with AR 75515.
Figure 2.15. Wiring Schematic of Typical Ignition Unit.
2.23. IGNITERS
Gas turbine igniters come in many sizes and shapes depending
upon the duty they will be subjected to. The electrodes of the plugs
used with highenergy
ignition systems must be able to accommodate a
current of much higher energy than the electrodes of conventional
spark plugs are capable of handling. Although the highenergy
current causes more rapid igniterelectrode
erosion than that
encountered in reciprocatingengine
spark plugs, this is not a major
disadvantage, because of the relatively short time that the ignition
system is in operation. Most igniter plugs used in turbine engines
are of the annulargap
type, shown in figure 2.16.
64
Figure 2.16. Annular Gap Igniter
Plug.
The annulargap
igniter
plug protrudes slightly into the
combustion chamber liner to
provide an effective spark.
Another type of igniter is the
constrainedgap
plug which does
not closely follow the face of
the plug; instead it tends to
jump in an arc which carries it
beyond the face of the chamber
liner. Because the constrainedgap
plug does not have to
protrude into the liner, the
electrode operates at a cooler
temperature than that of the
annulargap
plug.
2.24. INTERNAL COOLING SYSTEM
The intense heat generated when combustion takes place means
that all internal combustion engines must be cooled by some means.
Aircooled
reciprocating engines are cooled by air passing over fins
attached to the cylinders. Liquidcooled
engines, as in an
automobile, use a liquid coolant that passes through jackets
surrounding the cylinders. In a reciprocating engine, combustion
takes place only during every fourth stroke of a fourcycle
engine.
However, in a gas turbine engine, where the burning process is
continuous, nearly all the cooling air must pass through the inside
of the engine. If only enough air were admitted to the engine to
provide combustion, internal temperatures would increase to more than
4,000° F. Because of this, the amount of air admitted to the engine
is in excess of the amount required for combustion only; indeed,
about 75 percent of the air is used for cooling and 25 percent for
combustion. This large surplus of air (secondary air) cools the hot
expanding gases just before they enter the turbines. In some
engines, internal air is bled from the engine compressor section and
is vented through passages to the bearings and other parts of the
engine. This air is then vented into the exhaust stream.
2.25. ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION
Engine performance is monitored by instruments mounted on the
instrument panel in the cockpit.
a. Tachometer system. The tachometer gives the pilot a
continuous indication of engine rpm. A variety of systems or a
combination of systems may be used on gas turbine engines. Gas
65
producer or gas generator tachometers, turbine and rotor tachometers,
and N1 and N2 tachometers are some of the tachometer systems used.
The system may consist of dual indicators, registering rpm for
multiengine aircraft, registering engine and rotor rpm for rotarywing
aircraft, or engine and propeller rpm for fixedwing
aircraft.
A typical tachometer indicator is driven by a tachometergenerator.
The generator supplies power at a frequency proportional to the
driven speed which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator.
b. Torquemeter indicating system. Sometimes called a torque
pressure indicating system, the typical torquemeter indicating system
is a pressure indicator for continuous readings of engine outputshaft
torque. It is powered by an electrical transmitter mounted on
the engine inlet section.
c. Engine oil pressure indicating system. A typical engine
oil pressure indicating system gives continuous readings of engine
oil pump pressure in psi to the indicator, by means of an electrical
transmitter mounted on the engine inlet section. The transmitter is
connected to the 28volt
ac electrical system, and by a hose to a
pressure tap on the engine oil filter housing.
d. Engine oil temperature indicating system. In a typical
engine oil temperature indicating system, the indicator is
electrically connected to the 28volt
dc system. An electrical
resistance type thermobulb installed in the engine oil pump housing
measures temperatures of the oil entering that unit. The temperature
readings are transmitted to the indicator in degrees centigrade.
e. Exhaust gas temperature indicating system. The indicator
in a typical exhaust gas temperature indicating system operates on
electrical potential from an engine thermocouple harness with probes
mounted in the aft section of the engine exhaust diffuser. The
thermocouple is a device which converts heat into electricity. The
exhaust gas temperature indicator (thermocouple thermometer
indicator) is actually a sensitive millivoltmeter, calibrated in
degrees centigrade. Its D'Arsonval movement is activated by an
electrical force generated by its related thermocouple. The
indicator circuit is entirely independent of any other electrical
power source, and includes a coil resistor which provides a means of
systems calibration.
f. Fuel pressure indicating system. A typical fuel pressure
indicating system gives continuous readings of fuel pressure(psi) in
the main fuel supply line from the boost pumps in the tanks,
66

by means of an electrical transmitter. The transmitter is connected
to a tap on the valve manifold where all the fuel supply lines join
to deliver fuel to the engine through the fuel control inlet hose.
Electricity is supplied to the transmitter by the 28volt
ac system.
2.26. SUMMARY
The three types of ignition systems used on turbine engines
are induction, capacitor discharge, and glow plug. The most common
ignition system used on Army aircraft is the capacitor discharge.
The induction and capacitor systems use a spark producing plug to
ignite the fuel air mixture.
Because of the high operating temperatures of turbine engines,
an internal cooling system is used. Cooling air forms a blanket of
air around the combustion chamber.
Instrumentation consists of tachometers, torquemeters, and
pressure and temperature gages for monitoring engine performance.
67

Chapter 3
TESTING, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND
STORAGE PROCEDURES
3.1. INTRODUCTION
The information in this chapter is important to you because of
its general applicability to gas turbine engines. The information
covers the procedures used in testing, inspecting, maintaining, and
storing gas turbine engines. Specific procedures used for a
particular engine must be those given in the technical manual (TM)
covering that engine
3.2. THE TEST CELL
Before any engine is shipped to the user, the manufacturer or
overhaul facility has testrun
the engine in a test cell to ensure
quality control. The test cell building is usually constructed of
concrete and contains both the control room and engine room, although
in some test cells only the control room is enclosed. A typical test
cell and a control room are shown in figure 3.1. If an engine fails
during a test run or does not perform to the standards set by the
manufacturer, that engine and a specified number of previous engines
are disassembled to check for faults.
Figure 3.1. Test Cell Control Room.
Ground operation, or testing of an engine may also be
performed in the mobile engine test unit (METU). The mobile trailer
unit contains engine testing equipment similar to that available in
an engine test cell. The mobile unit increases engine availability
by eliminating most of the need to return engines to an overhaul
depot.
68
Testcell
instrumentation usually includes temperature and
pressure gages to monitor engine performance. The engine is run in
the test cell with the same demands placed upon it as if it were
installed in an aircraft. The performance of any engine is
considerably influenced by changes in ambient temperature and
pressure, because of the way these conditions affect the weight of
the air entering the engine. To compare the performance of similar
engines on different days, under different atmospheric conditions, a
given engine's performance must be corrected to the standard day
condition of 29.92 inches of mercury and 59° F.
During the initial run after assembly, or after extensive
maintenance or overhaul, engine statistics are recorded on a test
log. This log sheet remains with the engine historical records until
such time as another data sheet is completed.
During testing, any problem that would limit the engine's
performance, such as exhaust gas temperature, torque, fuel flow, or
maximum speed, is corrected. In addition, oil temperature, bearing
scavengeoil
temperature, seal leakage, and oil consumption must be
within established limits. These tests are usually performed under
other than standard day conditions, and data will then be computed to
a standard day rating by using the charts and tables in the engine
manual. This new information is entered on the engine test log sheet
as shown in figure 3.2 and becomes a permanent part of the engine
records.
3.3. VIBRATION EQUIPMENT
Highfrequency
vibrations must be detected and eliminated
because they can cause mechanical failure and extensive engine
damage. This paragraph discusses the cause of vibrations and the
equipment to analyze vibrations. The main source of vibration in the
gas turbine engine is the imbalance of rotating parts. Imbalance is
caused by an uneven distribution of weight and is measured in inchgrams
or inchounces.
An inchgram
is one gram of unbalanced weight
concentrated one inch from the center of a rotating part. When an
unbalanced part is rotated, a force is generated. This force is a
product of the amount of imbalance and rotating speed.
To analyze this force, a vibration transducer is used; this is
a miniature generator. When attached to a vibrating object it
generates an electrical signal that is proportional to the force
being analyzed. The signal is sent to a meter that amplifies the
signal so it can be conveniently read. The meter has four input
channels that independently accommodate a signal from a transducer.
The meter,
69

Figure 3.2. Engine Test Log Sheet.
70
shown in figure 3.3, also has connections for an oscilloscope or an
oscillograph for closer examination. Filters are available to
eliminate low frequency vibrations for a clearer picture of the
higher, more damaging vibration signals being studied.
Figure 3.3. Vibration Meter.
Gas turbine vibration sources fall in two general
classifications: forced vibration, and externally excited vibration.
Forced vibration is due to unbalanced rotating parts. The
uneven weight distribution that causes the imbalance may be due to
manufacturing methods, or improper assembly of components without
regard for the balance in relation to other components. Other engine
imbalances may be the result of a bent shaft, or a distortion caused
by temperature.
Externally excited vibrations are caused by means other than
an imbalance of rotating engine components. They may be caused by
associated accessories, such as loose engine mounts or clamps,
improperly mounted accessories, enginedriven
transmissions, or
airframe structure members.
An engine vibration test is preferred after major repair,
removal, or replacement of any rotating part, or when excessive
engine vibrations are suspected. Vibration pickups, attached to
adapters mounted on the engine, transmit electrical impulses through
71
cables to a vibration meter. The vibration meter indicates the total
amount of engine movement in mils, one mil being 1/1000 of an inch.
Meter indications are recorded on an Engine Vibration Test Data
Sheet, shown in figure 3.4. The recorded figures are compared with
the figures shown in parentheses on the data sheet for maximum
permissible engine vibration. If these maximum figures are exceeded,
the cause of the excessive vibration must be found and corrected
before the engine can be accepted for flight.
3.4. JETCAL ANALYZER
To check the exhaust gas temperature (ECT) system when
periodic maintenance inspections are required, or to troubleshoot the
system if abnormally high or low temperatures are noted, the jetcal
analyzer shown in figure 3.5 is used.
When checking the engine exhaust gas temperature (EGT)system,
the jetcal is used to heat the thermocouple to the desired
temperature without running the engine. The portable jetcal analyzer
is equipped with a handle and two rubber wheels for easy movement.
The jetcal operates on 95 to 135 volts, 50 to 400 cycles ac power
supply.
3.5. SCHEDULED AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS
Gas turbine engines are inspected at regular intervals scheduled.
The inspection requirements are stated in a required
order to assure that defects are discovered and corrected before
malfunctioning or serious trouble results.
A special inspection is required whenever any of the operating
limitations have been exceeded. Table II is a list of some of the
conditions when a special inspection is required.
3.6. ARMY SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM (ASOAP)
In the ASOAP program samples of used oil containing
microscopic metal particles are sent periodically to an oil analysis
laboratory. There the oil and its metal particles are burned by an
electric or gas flame. The wave length of the light emitted from the
burning oil and metal particles is measured to determine the kind and
quality of metal in the oil. The identification gives advance
warning of excessive wear on particular engine parts, thereby aiding
in preventing inflight engine failures.
72

Figure 3.4. Engine Vibration Test Data Sheet.
3.7. ENGINE MAINTENANCE PRECAUTIONS
Personnel performing maintenance on gas turbine engines must
observe the precautions stated in the applicable engine manual.
Disregarding these warnings and precautionary measures can result in
serious injury, illness, or death. The following subparagraphs
discuss some of the precautions that must be taken while performing
engine maintenance.
73
Figure 3.5. Jetcal Analyzer.
a. Use of lubricating oil. Prolonged contact with
lubricating oil may cause a skin rash. Skin and clothing that come
in contact with lubricating oil must be thoroughly washed
immediately. Saturated clothing should be removed without delay.
Areas in which lubricating oil is used must be ventilated to keep
mist and fumes to a minimum. Because lubricating oil can soften some
paint, oil spilled on painted surfaces must be promptly and
thoroughly washed off.
b. Cadmium plated tools. Be sure tools used on engine are
not cadmium plated. The cadmium plating on tools chips off, and oil
contaminated with cadmium chips can cause magnesium parts to
deteriorate.
c. Handling of parts. When handling combustion chamber
internal parts that have been exposed to fuels containing tetraethyl
lead compounds, be sure that the poisonous leadoxide
residue is not
74
TABLE II
SPECIAL INSPECTION TABLE
inhaled or taken into the body through cuts or other external
openings. If accidental exposure occurs, flush the affected area
thoroughly with clear water and obtain immediate medical attention.
Gloves and a face mask should be worn at all times when handling
parts contaminated by lead oxide. hi addition bearings must be
handled with special care. Gloves must be worn to prevent skin oil
and acid from etching the bearing surface.
d. Marking on hightemperature
materials. Using marking
materials such as a common lead pencil on metals subject to high
temperatures can cause the metal parts to crack. Approved marking
materials are specified in the applicable engine manual. Only these
marking materials are authorized for use.
e. Performing maintenance while engine is operating.
Maintenance personnel must use caution when performing maintenance on
operating engines. Because of the high temperature and velocity of
the exhaust gases, personnel must stay clear of exhaust areas.
Turbine intake areas are also a hazard. Large jet engines have been
known to suck men into the engine. The smaller turbine engines in
Army aircraft are capable of picking up small objects that
75
are close to the intake. Anyone working around turbine engines
should remove headgear and loose articles such as pens and pencils
from shirt pockets. Figure 3.6 shows the exhaustblast
area of an
OV1
aircraft, to be avoided when the engine is running.
Figure 3.6. Exhaust Blast
Area.
76
3.8. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
It is important to see that the engine compartment is kept as
clean as possible because the highvelocity
airflow through the
engine will draw any foreign objects into the compressor. All loose
parts, such as safety wire, cotter pin clippings, and nuts and bolts
should be removed immediately. Tubing and lines should be checked
for security, nicks, chafing, dents, and leaks.
Inspection and maintenance of gasturbine
engines are somewhat
easier than those of reciprocating engines because the gas turbines
stay cleaner. Besides, the first several stages of most compressors
can be inspected for FOD by using a strong light. Also, the last two
turbine stages are readily opened for inspection of heat damage.
The oil system is checked on the daily inspection for proper
oil level. However, when adding oil, different types should not be
mixed. In the past the Army has used MILL7808
lubricating oil in
turbine engines. Because of the higher operating temperatures
encountered in the current gas turbine engines, a new oil has been
developed. Military Specification No. MILL23699
uses a new
synthetic base and new additive combination to cope with the more
severe operating conditions and higher temperature ratings. When
changing from MILL7808
to MILL23699
lubricating oil, check the
engine TM for proper procedures.
3.9. CLEANING ENGINE ASSEMBLY
The exterior of the engine, and its attached components, can
be cleaned with a suitable cleaning solvent, such as PD680.
If the
solvent is sprayed on the engine with compressed air, care must be
taken to avoid forcing dirt, solvent, or moisture into engine
openings and electrical connections. The primary purpose of cleaning
is to remove contaminants that might conceal minor cracks and defects
which if not detected could eventually lead to failure. Under normal
circumstances, engine components are cleaned only as necessary to
perform required inspection and repair. After using alternate or
emergency fuels, cleaning internal hotend
parts may be required to
remove lead oxide deposits. These deposits, if not removed, are
detrimental to engine life and performance. The choice of any
particular cleaning agent or process depends upon the engine part to
be cleaned and the contaminants to be removed.
77

Take particular care in selecting a cleaning method to ensure that
anodizing or dichromating is not removed from the surfaces. Do not
use caustics on aluminum, magnesium, ceramiccoated,
aluminized,
painted, nitrated, or carbonized parts. In most cases the engine
manual prescribes the approved cleaning procedure to be used. Most
engine parts may be cleaned by using the following methods.
a. Vapor degreasing. Used only on unpainted metal parts or
aluminumpainted
steel parts, vapor degreasing using heated
trichloroethylene, type II, or perchloroethylene, specification No.
OT634,
removes oil, grease, and sludge. The hot vapor condenses on
metal surfaces, liquefies, and carries away the oil, grease, and
sludge. Parts may be flushed while held in the vapor. To prevent
corrosion, the parts should not be removed from solvent vapors until
they have reached the temperature of the vapor.
b. Solvent immersion. In another cleaning method, the parts
are immersed in Carbon Removing Compound MILC19853,
to remove
carbon, gum, grease, and other surface contaminants. This method is
used on steel and stainless steel parts. Parts with painted finishes
should not be cleaned by this method, because the carbon cleaning
compound attacks the paint.
c. Vapor blasting. An abrasive method used to clean
combustor parts, vapor blasting must not be used on ceramic,
magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces. Be sure that metal is not
removed during cleaning and that cooling slots, holes, ridges, and
overlap areas do not become clogged with blasting grit.
d. Drycleaning
solvent. All metal parts may be cleaned with
drycleaning
solvent, PD680
Type I. This method is suitable for
removing heavy oil and grease deposits from most parts, including
flexible hoses and carbon seals. Drycleaning
solvent leaves an oily
film that protects steel parts from corrosion for a short time.
3.10. CLEANING COMPRESSOR ROTOR BLADES
When a particular engine's performance decreases to or below
the point specified in the applicable TM, and the EGT increases
steadily during normal operation, the compressor rotor blades need
cleaning. Compressor rotor blades should also be cleaned whenever
the engine has been operating in areas where the air is salt laden,
or when the engine has been subjected to contamination with fire
extinguishing agent residue (chlorobromomethane and soda ash).
Cleaning can be accomplished while the engine is installed in the
aircraft.
78

Before cleaning any engine the applicable engine technical
manual must be consulted for the proper procedures to follow. On
some engines, temperature and pressure lines must be disconnected and
capped to prevent solvent and water from entering.
The following is the preferred method for cleaning the
compressor on the T53L13.
Refer to figure 3.7 as you read the
following steps in the cleaning method.
a. Remove airframe air intake components as necessary.
b. Remove the inlet airtemperature
sensing element from the
inlet housing.
c. Disconnect the pressure line to bleed band actuator and
cap the diffuser fitting with AN9296
cap assembly.
d. Block off the customer bleed air supply at the customer
airbleed port in the airbleed adapter assembly.
e. While the engine is cold, rotate it with the starter and
spray one quart of drycleaning
solvent (PD680
Type 1) evenly
through all sections of the inlet housing. Make sure both sides of
the inlet guide vanes are covered with solvent.
f. Stop motoring the engine and let it stand for at least one
hour to permit the dry cleaning solvent to loosen dirt.
g. Clean the inlet guide vanes with a small, round fiber
brush with a long handle.
h. Start the engine and operate it at flight idle.
i. Spray CLEAN fresh water evenly into all sections of the
inlet housing at the rate of two gallons per minute for approximately
two minutes. To avoid freezing at ambient temperatures below 35° F
(1.5° C), use antidetonating
injection fluid or a mixture containing
40 percent methanol and 60 percent water in lieu of water.
j. Allow the engine to run for 2 to 5 minutes to dry out;
then shut the engine down.
k. Inspect the inlet guide vanes and compressor for
cleanliness.
l. Repeat the cleaning procedure if necessary.
79

Figure 3.7. Compressor Blade Cleaning.
m. Reconnect the lines for normal operation.
n. Clean the temperature sensing element with drycleaning
solvent and reinstall it.
80
3.11. OVERHAUL AND REPAIR
The time between overhauls (TBO) varies considerably between
different engines. The TBO is established by the Army and the engine
manufacturer who take into account the kind of operation and use
expected for the engine, also the environment it will be operating
in. As a specific model engine builds up operating time, it is
inspected for signs of wear and impending failure of parts. If the
engine is wearing well, the TBO is extended. The large improvement
of TBO has been accomplished mainly through improvements in engine
design, metallurgy, manufacturing, overhaul, inspection, and
maintenance procedures. The use to which the engine is put is
especially important in determining the TBO. For example, if the
mission the aircraft is designed for calls for frequent starts and
stops, or for power changes as in a helicopter, the resultant rapid
temperature changes will shorten the allowed TBO. The following
paragraphs cover disassembly, assembly, and repair procedures.
a. Disassembly. Engine disassembly can be accomplished on a
vertical or horizontal disassembly stand as shown in figure 3.8.
Some engines can be disassembled either horizontally or vertically,
while others have to be done in only one position. After the engine
is disassembled, the major components and section assembly are
mounted on individual stands. To disassemble an engine, instructions
in the TM must be followed, and a large number of special tools is
required. A set of these tools may cost as much as the engine.
b. Assembly. Engine assembly also follows instruction in the
TM; it is done on the same stand as disassembly. During assembly,
care must be taken to prevent dirt and other foreign materials from
entering the engine. The procedures and use of special tools as
outlined in the maintenance manual must be followed to minimize
possible injury to the mechanic and damage to the engine.
c. Repair. All engine parts must be repaired using methods
approved by the engine TM. Figure 3.9 shows an illustration of
typical repair limits for compressor rotor blades on the Lycoming T53
series engines.
3.12. MAINTENANCE ALLOCATION CHART
Maintenance function assignments are determined by the
maintenance allocation chart found in the aircraft 20
technical
manual. The maintenance allocation chart assigns functions to the
lowest capable maintenance level based on past experience, and the
skills, tools,
81

Figure 3.8. Engine Disassembly Stand.
and time available. Maintenance that cannot be performed at the
assigned level may be reassigned to the next higher level.
Generally, there is no deviation from the assigned level of
maintenance. However, in cases of operational necessity, higher
level function is assigned to a lower level by the maintenance
officer of the level to which the function is originally assigned.
Figure 3.10 shows an example of a maintenance allocation chart for
UH1D
and H series helicopters. The symbols "O, F, H and D"
represent: organizational maintenance (O), direct support maintenance
(F), general support maintenance (H), and depot maintenance (D).
When one of these symbols is placed on the allocation chart, it
indicates the lowest level of maintenance responsible for performing
the particular maintenance function. Maintenance levels higher than
the level symbolized on the chart are authorized to perform the
indicated maintenance.
The terms used in block (3) of the maintenance allocation
chart are explained in table HI for convenience in reviewing and for
future reference.
3.13. STORAGE AND PRESERVATION
The degree of preservation is determined by the anticipated
length of time an engine is expected to be inactive. The three
categories of storage are:
82

Figure 3.9. Compressor Rotor Blade Damage Before and After Repair.
a. Flyable storage. An engine that will not be operated for
a period of at least 72 hours, nor more than 14 days, must be
preserved and maintained with all components and systems in an
operable condition. On the third day, the engine must be runup
or
motored with the starter. If the engine is only motored on the third
day, it must be run up on the seventh.
83
Figure 3.10. Maintenance Allocation Chart.
84
TABLE III
DEFINITIONS OF MAINTENANCE TERMS
85

b. Temporary storage. An engine that will not be operated
for over 14 days, but less than 45 days, must be placed in temporary
storage. Engines normally falling in this category are those
undergoing minor repair or modification, awaiting assignment or
disposition, being held in operational reserve, or any other
condition which requires idleness for a period not to exceed 45 days.
c. Extended storage. An engine that will be inactive for
more than 45 days, but not exceeding 180 days, must be preserved and
maintained in extended storage. Usually, this includes those engines
undergoing major repair or modification, those declared surplus and
awaiting final disposition, or any other circumstance that would
warrant idleness for 45 to 180 days.
NOTE
Permanent storage is a depot level function.
ENGINE PRESERVATION GENERAL.
All preservation procedures require
that any accumulation of dirt be removed from the engine with dry
cleaning solvent. Under usual conditions, it will not be necessary
to clean the entire external surface of the engine. If necessary,
perspiration residues can be removed from close tolerance bare metal
surfaces by wiping with a clean cloth dampened in fingerprint remover
before cleaning with solvent.
CAUTION
To prevent oil contamination, never mix
syntheticbase
oils with mineralbase
oils.
Syntheticbase
lubricating oil is required for
the engine. Only a syntheticbase
corrosion
preventive oil can be used to spray the
compressor for corrosion prevention.
3.14. TURBINE ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
Engine malfunctions can be recognized and diagnosed by
comparing actual engine instrument reading with normal readings. To
aid maintenance personnel in engine troubleshooting, the engine
technical manual has troubleshooting charts to analyze, isolate, and
correct engine malfunctions. Proper utilization of the
troubleshooting charts will save time, provide a logical method of
isolating the causes of malfunctions, and eliminate the unnecessary
replacement of parts. Figure 3.11 explains how to use the
troubleshooting charts.
86

Figure 3.11. How to Use Troubleshooting Charts.
87
3.15. SUMMARY
Gas turbine engines are run in test cells to ensure quality
control before they are shipped to the user for installation in
aircraft. The test cell is equipped with instruments to monitor
engine performance. Engine vibration tests can be performed with the
engine in the test cell or installed in the aircraft. Vibration
tests are required after any maintenance on rotating parts or when
excessive engine vibration is suspected. A jetcal analyzer is used
to check the accuracy of the egt system and to calibrate it.
There are two kinds of engine inspections, scheduled and
special. Scheduled inspections are required whenever any of the
operating limits have been exceeded.
Under the Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) oil
samples are analyzed for metal content, to prevent inflight
engine
failures.
Personnel performing maintenance on gas turbine engines should
observe the precautions stated in the engine manual to avoid serious
personnel injury or engine damage. All engine cleaning, both
internal and external, should be performed in accordance with the
appropriate engine manual. In most cases the engine manual
prescribes the approved cleaning procedure to be used. Most engine
parts may be cleaned by the vapor degreasing, solvent immersion, or
vapor blasting methods.
The TBO of a gas turbine engine depends upon such things as
operating environment, mission to be performed, and how will the
engine wear as flight time is built up.
Maintenance function assignments are determined by the
maintenance allocation chart found in the aircraft 20
manual. Three
categories of engine storage are used. The decision as to which
category of storage is to be used depends upon the length of time the
engine will be inactive.
88

Chapter 4
LYCOMING T53
4.1. INTRODUCTION
The two sections of this chapter discuss, in detail, the
Lycoming T53 series gas turbine engine used in Army aircraft.
Section I gives a general description of the T53, describes the
engine's five sections, explains engine operation, compares models
and specifications, and describes the engine's airflow path. The
second section covers major engine assemblies and systems.
Basically, all models of the T53 engine are of the same
design. The major difference on models later than the T53L11
is
that they have two gas producer turbines (N1) and two freepower
turbines (N2) instead of the single stage turbine used on the L11
and earlier models. The engine models described in this chapter are
primarily the T53L13,
and T53L701.
However, the description and
information given is applicable to all models except where noted.
Section I. Operational Description of the T53 Gas Turbine Engine
4.2. GENERAL
The information in this section is important to you because it
describes the engine's airflow path through the inlet, compressor,
diffuser, combustion, and exhaust sections, and explains the
operational relationship of these sections. In addition differences
between models and specifications are compared. Except for the
paragraph comparing models, this section's coverage is limited to the
T53L13
and 701.
4.3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The T53 series gas turbine engine is an annular reverseflow,
freepower
turbine powerplant developed for fixedand
rotarywing
aircraft. As shown in figure 4.1, the engine consists of inlet,
compressor, diffuser, combustion, and exhaust sections. All these
are designed to include an annular or circular flow path for the air
or hot gases, and they are structurally dependent on one another.
These sections support all internal rotating systems and have
attaching capabilities for engine accessories.
89

Figure 4.1. T53 Engine (Exploded View).
90
4.4. OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION
The discussion in this paragraph describes briefly the airflow
through the engines and the operation of the Lycoming T53. The
capital letters in parentheses such as (A), (B), (C) and so on in the
discussion correspond to similar letters in figure 4.2 and refer you
to that particular portion of the engine diagram.
a. Air flow. Atmospheric air (A) is drawn into the annular
air passageway of the inlet housing (B) and passes rearward across
the variable inlet guide vanes (C). The vanes direct the air into
the engine compressor section. The air passageway in the compressor
section contains Eve rotating axial compressor stages with five sets
of stationary stator vanes, a set of exit guide vanes (D), and one
centrifugal compressor (E). As the air passes through this section,
each rotating axial compressor stage increases the pressure. The
exit guide vanes guide the air onto the centrifugal compressor which
further accelerates the air as it passes radially into the diffuser
housing air passageway (F). Vanes in the diffuser air passageway
convert the high velocity of the air into pressure and also change
the radial airflow to a rearward flowing direction.
At this point the air enters the combustor section,
passing around and into the annular combustion area (G) through
slots, louvers, holes, and scoops fabricated in the combustion liner.
On entering the combustion area, flow direction is reversed while
both air velocity and pressure drop. The air, at the same time,
performs the multiple functions of cooling the combustor liner;
mixing with fuel, and burning, sustaining, and maintaining the high
heat combustion within a confined area; and absorbing the heat of
combustion so as to lower the heat to a usable temperature.
Combustion is made possible by introducing fuel into the combustion
area through 22 atomizers. The atomized fuel mixes with the air,
burns, and produces temperatures as high as 3,500 degrees F.
As previously stated, this exceedingly hot gas is cooled
as it flows forward in the combustion area to the deflector, which
reverses the hot gas flow. Now flowing rearward, the gas is directed
across the twostage
gas producer nozzle turbine system. The first
stage nozzle (H) directs the high energy gas onto the first stage
turbine (I), across the second stage nozzle (J) onto the second stage
turbine (K). The power system also uses the twostage
nozzle turbine
concept. Therefore, on leaving the second stage gas producer
turbine, the gas, still possessing a high work potential, flows
across the third stage nozzle (L) onto the third stage turbine (M),
across the fourth stage nozzle (N) onto the fourth stage turbine (O).
On passing from the fourth stage turbine, the gas is exhausted into
the atmosphere through the exhaust diffuser passageway (P).
91
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
(continued on next page)
Figure 4.2. T53L13
Engine Airflow.
93a
(continued from previous page)
93b
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
b. Operation. The engine is started by energizing the
starter, the starting fuel solenoid valve, and the ignition system.
Starting fuel flows into the combustion chamber through four starting
fuel nozzles and is ignited by the four igniter plugs adjacent to the
starting fuel nozzles at the 2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions. At 8
to 13 percent N1 speed, the fuel regulator valve opens, and main fuel
flows into the combustion chamber through 22 fuel atomizers and is
ignited by the burning starting fuel. As compressor rotor speed (N1)
increases, the additional fuel mixes with compressed air and burns.
When compressor speed increases to 40 percent N1 speed, the
starter, starting fuel solenoid valve, and ignition system should be
deenergized.
Combustion gases pass through the gas producer nozzle
assemblies; impinge upon (strike) the blades of the gas producer
rotor assemblies; How through the power turbine nozzle assemblies;
and impinge upon the blades of the power turbine rotor assemblies.
Approximately 60 percent of the gas energy passing from the
combustion chamber is extracted by the N1 turbine rotors to drive the
compressor, while the remaining energy is extracted by the N2 power
turbines to drive the power shaft. The power turbine rotor
assemblies are splined to the power shaft and secured by the powershaft
bolt. The power shaft is splined into the sungear
shaft,
which drives the output reduction gearing and, in turn, the power
output gear shaft.
4.5. MODEL COMPARISON
The Lycoming T53 engine design was submitted to the military,
and in 1952 a contract was awarded to the Army for development of the
present T53 gas turbine engine. The basic T53 powerplant is a free
turbine consisting of two mechanically independent stages a
compressor and a power turbine. From the initial prototype version,
many models of the T53 have been developed. The following models are
currently being used by the Army.
T53L13
a
secondgeneration
shaft turbine engine having
all the improvements developed for the T53L11/
11A/11B versions.
It introduces combustion chamber atomizers (replacing the vaporizer
tubes), two gas producer and power turbine rotors instead of one of
each, and four atomizing type starting fuel nozzles and four igniter
plugs.
T53L13A
Engine
model T53L13
containing additional
modifications is designated as model T53L13A.
This model
incorporates the following improvements: a 34blade
second stage
compressor disc assembly; No. 2 bearing forward and aft seals, bearing
95
housing and retaining plate; oillubricated
fuelcontrol
drive
splines, an air diffuser and accessory gearbox with improved oil
scavenge capability; and a 6probe
exhaust gas temperature harness
assembly.
T53L15
a
turboprop equivalent of the T53L13,
the T53L15
has been flatrated
and is equipped with a torque limiter to
prevent engine torque from exceeding the limitations imposed by the
airframe manufacturer. Other differences include a 6probe,
12point
exhaustgas
thermocouple harness, a fuel heater, fuel filter, and
bypass fuel filter. Also, the manual operating feature of the fuel
control has been deleted.
T53L701
the
newest turboprop addition to the Lycoming T53
series engines is designated the T53L701.
The most dynamic feature
of the T53L701
is a newly developed Lycoming splitpower
reduction
gear assembly, using an electric torquemetering system. This splitpower
reduction gear assembly permits development of the full
mechanical and thermodynamic capabilities of the T53L701
by
allowing operation to 1,451 shp. Very accurate torque measurements
on the T53L701
are provided by an electric torquemeter system.
4.6. SPECIFICATION SUMMARY
Specifications for the T53L13
and 701 engines used in Army
aircraft are summarized in the following chart.
96
4.7. DIRECTIONAL REFERENCES AND ENGINE STATIONS
The diagrams in figures 4.3 and 4.4 show directional
references and engine stations. Notice that power output is taken
from the front end and that exhaust gas is expelled from the rear
end. Right and left sides for the engine are determined by viewing
the engine from the rear. The engine's bottom is determined by the
accessory drive gearbox's location. The top of the engine is
directly opposite, or 180 degrees from the accessory drive gearbox.
Rotational direction is determined by viewing from the rear of the
engine. The compressor rotor and gas producer turbines rotate in a
counterclockwise direction. The power turbines and output gearshaft
rotate in a clockwise direction.
Figure 4.3. Engine Orientation Diagram (T53L13).
The T53 engine has 14 ports for test measuring, and it is
divided into stations to designate temperature (T) and pressure (P)
measuring locations. Engine stations for the T53L13
are shown in
Figure 4.4. They are identified on the drawing as 1.0, 2.0, on up to
9.0, but in practice they are spoken of as 1, 2, 3, and so forth.
Station 1, on the inlet housing, is for ambient air. Stations 2 and
3 are for compressor and diffuser discharge air. Station 4 is
located at the combustor section. Stations 5 and 7 designate turbine
inlets N1 and N2. Station 9 is the location for the exhaust diffuser.
No stations are shown for 6 and 8, because these numbers are not used.
97
Figure 4.4. Engine Stations (T53L13).
98

4.8. SUMMARY
Following the air path through the engine shows how air is
drawn into and moved through the engine's Eve sections. Air brought
into the compressor section is accelerated into the diffuserhousing
air passageway. As the air moves through the passageway, its
velocity changes to pressure and, under pressure, the air enters the
combustion chamber to mix with injected fuel. The flow of the hot
gases across the turbine rotors produces mechanical energy to drive
the compressor and propel the aircraft.
The various models of the T53 include the L13,
L13A,
L15,
and L701.
Some of the specifications differ in each model.
Section II. Major Engine Systems and Assembles
4.9. GENERAL
Starting at the front of the engine and working rearward we
discuss the major engine assemblies. Systems such as fuel, oil, and
electrical are covered in their entirety, after the major engine
assemblies. Also keep in mind that the T53L13
is a turboshaft
engine, and the T53L701
is a turboprop engine. The turboprop
engine has a propeller reduction gear assembly in the inlet housing
where the turboshaft engine has a smaller output reduction gear
assembly.
4.10. INLET HOUSING ASSEMBLY
The forward structural support of the engine is provided by
the inlet housing assembly shown in figure 4.5. The outer housing,
supported by six hollow struts, forms the outer wall of the annular
air inlet and houses the antiicing
manifold. The inner housing
forms the inner wall of the inlet area.
Enclosed in the inlet housing is the output reduction carrier
and gear assembly, the oil transfer support assembly, and the
accessory drive carrier. A torquemeter valve and cylinder, power
shaft support bearing, and No. 1 main bearing are also mounted
internally. At the rear of the housing the inlet guide vanes are
installed in the airflow path to direct air at the proper angle onto
the first stage of the compressor rotor.
99

Figure 4.5. Inlet Housing.
Externally the inlet housing provides mounting points for the
overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly, and the N1 and N2
accessory drive gearbox assemblies. The housing also has engine
mounting pads, a hoisting eye, and engine and airframe accessory
mounting pads. The entire onepiece,
castmagnesium
housing is
coated with a heatapplied
epoxy paint (HAE) to prevent erosion and
corrosion.
100
The gas producer compressor assembly is supported at its
forward end by the No. 1 main bearing, figure 4.6, which is a ball
bearing to absorb thrust and radial loads, mounted within a leaf
spring retainer that dampens minor torsional vibrations. The aft
side of the bearing is sealed by a positive contact carbon seal aided
by springs and pressurized air. A radial labyrinth seal is located
forward of the carbon seal, operating on pressurized air through
bleed holes; it assists in positive sealing of the bearing area. The
forward end of the power shaft is supported by an unnumbered roller
bearing within the inlet housing. All main bearings may be seen by
referring back to figure 4.4.
The following subparagraphs give some information about the
T53L13
output reduction carrier and gear assembly and the T53L701
propeller reduction carrier and gear assembly.
a. Output reduction carrier and gear assembly on the
turboshaft engine in the T53L13
is located in the inner inlet
housing as shown in figure 4.7. It consists of the support housing
(1), carrier assembly (2), three planetary gear assemblies (3), oil
transfer tubes (4), an output gear shaft (5), and a torquemeter
assembly (not shown). The sun gearshaft is splined and bolted to the
forward end of the power shaft and drives the three planetary gears,
which in turn drive the output gearshaft. Reduction ratio of the
turboshaft engine is 3.2 to 1.
b. Propeller reduction carrier and gear assembly used in the
T53L701
engine utilizes a revolutionized reduction gear system
called split power gearing. This type of power gear system has the
ability to absorb greater torque loads, which permits the delivery of
increased horsepower. Figure 4.8 is a cross sectional view of the
split power reduction gear system. The power turbine speed reduction
is accomplished within the split power gearing by primary and
secondary drive systems, with power being transmitted to the
propeller shaft through each of these systems.
4.11. ACCESSORY DRIVE ASSEMBLY
This assembly provides drive for both the N1driven
accessory
gearbox and the N2driven
overspeed governor and tachometer. The
numbers in parentheses in the following paragraphs are used in figure
4.9 to show the accessory gear drives.
101

Figure 4.6. No. 1 Bearing and Seal Area.
102
Figure 4.7. Output Reduction Carrier and Gear Assembly.
103
Figure 4.8. Split Power Reduction Gearing (T53L701).
N1 drive is provided from a pinion gear (9) mounted on the
forward end of the compressor rotor shaft, driving two bevel gears
(10 and 19) located within the accessory gear carrier. The bevel
gear located at the six o'clock position within the carrier, being
the accessory gearbox drive gear (10), is splined internally to
accept the accessory gearbox shaft (18). This drive shaft connects
the gear carrier to the accessory gearbox through the 90° pinion gear
(16) which in turn is splined directly to the startergenerator
drive
gear (15). The startergenerator
drive gear provides drive to all
subordinate gears located within the accessory gearbox housing.
104
Figure 4.9. Accessory Drives.
105
The power takeoff drive is provided through the second bevel
gear (19) located within the accessory gear carrier, and it is used
to drive airframe accessories.
The N2driven
overspeed governor and tachometer drive gearbox
(1) receives its drive from a spur gear (20) pressed to the power
shaft aft of the sun gear. This gear engages the N2 drive and driven
gear package (8) located within the accessory gear carrier. This
package, a series of three gears, provides an internally splined
drive for the drive shaft (2) which passes up through the ten o'clock
inlet housing strut and into the gearbox (1).
The drive shaft then engages the internal splines of the upper
drive gear (3) which provides drive to the tachometer gear (5). This
gear meshes directly with an idler gear (6) which in turn transmits
the drive to the combination torquemeter boost pump and overspeed
governor drive gear (7).
a. N1 accessory drive gearbox assembly, shown in figure 4.10,
is mounted on the underside of the engine inlet housing and is driven
through bevel gears from the front end of the compressor rotor.
Drive pads are provided on rear of the gearbox for the fuel control,
the startergenerator,
and the gas producer (N1) tachometer generator.
The gearbox front side has mounting for the rotary oil pump, and also
has an unused drive pad with connection for the torquemeter pressure
transmitter vent line. Oil scavenge lines are connected at right
rear on the gearbox which is an oil collector sump, kept practically
empty by the pump. A chip detector plug is located in the lower
right side, and the oil filter is on the left side.
b. N2 overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly, shown
in figure 4.11, is a gearbox mounted on the engine inlet housing at
the upper left side and is driven from the power shaft. The drive
assembly provides mounting and drive pads for the power turbine (N2)
tachometer generator and the torquemeter boost pump, (except on the
T53L701)
and also drives the fuel control overspeed governor. A
relief valve, on the drive housing, allows adjustment of torquemeter
oil pressure. An internal filter and metering cartridge lubricates
the gear train.
106

Figure 4.10. N1 Accessory Drive Gearbox.
4.12. COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY
The compressor and impeller housings, figure 4.12, consist of
two matched halves constructed of cast magnesium and coated with HAE
like the inlet housing assembly. The compressor housings provide
alignment and support between the inlet housing forward and the
diffuser housing aft. The housings enclose the fivestage
axial
compressor and the singlestage
centrifugal compressor impeller. The
stator vanes are located in lands (areas) between the compressor
rotor disks when the housings are installed. The stators convert air
velocity, from the rotating compressor, into pressure. The stators
also direct airflow, at the proper angle, on to the following set of
rotating compressor blades. The fifth stator vane assembly includes
a row of exit guide vanes which direct airflow on to the centrifugal
compressor impeller.
107
Figure 4.11. N2 Overspeed Governor and Tachometer Drive Assembly.
Stainless steel inserts are mounted between the stator vane
rows of stages two through five to reduce compressor housing erosion
from sand and foreign objects. At the rear of the axial compressor
housings, a series of machined passages are provided to allow
bleeding of compressor air. This bleeding of air is controlled by an
interstage airbleed system. The centrifugal impeller housings have a
hollow core which allows compressor bleed air to flow through them to
the customer bleed air and antiicing
systems.
Externally the housing provides mounting points for limited
engine and airframe accessories. Because of the structural support
provided by the compressor housing, only one half may be removed at a
time.
The dual compressor rotor assembly, figure 4.13, consists of
five axial compressor rotor disks and one centrifugal impeller. The
axial compressor blades are mounted in dovetail slots, machined into
the rotor disks. Roll pins and lock plates, which act as shims,
secure the blades to the disk. The centrifugal impeller is
constructed of titanium for a high strengthtoweight
ratio. The
compressor rotor assembly is attached to the rear shaft and connects
to the gas
108
Figure 4.12. Compressor and Impeller Housing.
109
Figure 4.13. Compressor Rotor Assembly.
110
producer turbine. The hollow steel powershaft passes through and
rotates independently of the compressor rotor. Splines on the
forward end of the powershaft mate with the sun gearshaft that drives
the output reduction gears. Splines at the aft end of the powershaft
mate with the power turbine. The powershaft is supported at the
forward end, within the inlet housing, by a roller type bearing. The
aft end of the shaft is supported along with the power turbines (N2)
by the No. 3 and 4 main bearings.
4.13. DIFFUSER HOUSING ASSEMBLY
The diffuser assembly housing shown in figure 4.14 is made of
steel and is located aft of the compressor section.
Figure 4.14. Diffuser Housing.
111
The diffuser receives high velocity air from the tip of the
centrifugal impeller. The function of the diffuser is the decrease
velocity and increase air pressure in this area. Air pressure at the
diffuser discharge is at its highest value, with air temperature in
the vicinity of 500° F. The diffuser also provides a means for
bleeding a portion of the high temperature air for required engine
and airframe use, such as engine antiicing
and cockpit heat. Later
versions have an external air manifold, known as a piggyback
diffuser, where air is extracted for use as required.
Externally, the diffuser provides engine mounting points at
the four, eight, and twelve o'clock positions. Hoisting provisions
are incorporated in the top or twelve o'clock mount. A port for
extracting pressurized air for use as the pneumatic force for
operation of an interstage bleed system actuator is provided at the
three o'clock position. Mounting points for required engine
accessories are provided on the external housing.
4.14. COMBUSTOR TURBINE ASSEMBLY
Located aft of the diffuser housing, the combustor turbine
assembly consists of the combustion chamber housing and liner, gas
producer turbines, power turbines, and exhaust diffuser. The
combustor assembly is an external annular reverseflow
type.
Although this design increases the diameter of the engine to a
degree, it significantly reduces its overall length. It is
classified an external annular reverseflow
type, in that the
circular combustion chamber is located outside of and encloses the
turbine area.
As shown back in figure 4.2, compressed air flowing aft from
the diffuser enters the combustor (25 percent primary air) and mixes
with fuel and supports combustion, within the combustion liner. The
hot expanding gas flows forward within the liner; it is diluted and
cooled by the remaining compressed air (75 percent secondary air).
Flow direction is changed again to the rear by the stationary
deflector mounted within the diffuser inner housing. The gases then
flow through the gas producer nozzles which greatly accelerate the
gas stream and direct it onto the gas producer turbine (N1). The N1
turbine extracts approximately 60 percent of the energy to rotate the
compressor assembly. The gases still possessing energy are again
accelerated as they pass through the power turbine N2 nozzles. The
gas stream is then directed onto the power turbines where most of the
remaining gas energy is extracted to rotate the N2 power shaft.
112

The gases are then directed into the exhaust diffuser, and an
average temperature of the gas stream is measured in this area
(station 9, in figure 4.4). Although this temperature is much lower
than that existing in the turbine inlet area (station 5, in figure
4.4), it is relative and indicative of the temperature at station 5.
The fuel control automatically programs fuel flow, so the maximum
turbine inlet temperature is not exceeded during normal operation.
a. Combustion chamber housing. The T53 has an annular
combustion housing Which is constructed of steel. A flange at the
forward end mates with the aft flange of the compressor diffuser
housing. It is at this point that the engine is split to perform a
hotend
inspection. A combustion chamber drain valve is located at
the 6 o'clock position. This valve is spring loaded in the open
position to drain any unburned fuel from the combustor during engine
shutdown after a false or aborted start. During engine operation,
compressed air flowing through the combustion chamber automatically
closes the valve when chamber pressure exceeds outside pressure by
approximately 2 psi. If the drain valve fails to close during engine
Figure 4.15. Combustion Chamber
Liner.
operation a power reduction from
air loss will occur. The
stainlesssteel,
annular,
combustion chamber liner is shown
in figure 4.15. The liner
contains a series of holes and
louvers which vary in size,
regulate the flow of pressurized
air into the inner area to
support combustion, and form a
cooling air blanket on the liner
surface. The T53L13
and later
version have twentytwo
swirl
cups on the aft end that provide
fuel nozzle access into the
burner zone. Slots in the swirl
cups direct airflow in a pattern
to provide proper fuel
atomization and flame control.
b. Turbine assembly. As
the gases flow rearward from the
defector, item 1 in figure 4.16,
they contact the first stage gas
producer turbine nozzle. The gases are accelerated by the nozzles to
impinge upon the open tip blades of the N1 turbine, causing them to
rotate at high speed in a counterclockwise direction. As the gases
pass from the trailing end of the blades, an additional force is
imparted to the turbine by the reaction to this flow.
113
Figure 4.16. Gas Producer Assembly, N1.
114
The first stage gas producer turbine (GPl) and the second
stage gas producer turbine (GP2) are mechanically joined together and
rotate as one assembly (N1). The dual turbine design in later
versions of the T53 permits more lightly loaded turbine blades than
previous single turbine models and has a power output increase of 20%.
As the gases flow from the GP2 they pass on to the first
stage power turbine nozzle (PT1). The gases are again accelerated
and flow across the two N2 power turbines. Both turbine rotors have
tip shrouded blades to prevent air losses and excessive vibrations.
The power turbines are supported at the aft end by No. 3 (roller) and
No. 4 (ball) main bearings. An N2 power turbine assembly is shown in
figure 4.17.
c. Exhaust diffuser. The welded steel diffuser, shown in
figure 4.18, forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases. The
diffuser consists of an inner and outer housing separated by four
hollow struts. It is mounted to the aft inner flange of the
combustor housing. Support for the aft section of the diffuser is
provided by a support cone, 20 back in figure 4.1, that is secured by
a "V" band coupling to the aft outer flange of the combustor housing.
Located between the exhaust diffuser and support cone is a stainless
steel fire shield, 19 in figure 4.1. During operation ambient air
flows between the outer and mid cones of the diffuser. This air
passes through a series of holes on the forward area of the outer
cone and into the chamber formed by the diffuser and the fire shield.
Ambient air then lows through the hollow struts to cool the bearing
housing mounted within the diffuser and aft face of the power turbine
(PT2). Mounts for an exhaust gas temperature harness are located on
the diffuser midcone. The aft flange on the diffuser midcone is the
mounting point for an airframe furnished tailpipe. The tailpipe
routes the exhaust gas stream to the atmosphere.
4.15. DESCRIPTION OF FUEL SYSTEM
The T53 series engines are designed to operate primarily on
MILJ5624
grade JP4
fuel. The fuel system consists of the
components shown in figure 4.19.
Fuel flow is maintained between components by flexible or
rigid lines. An airframemounted
boost pump supplies fuel to the
fuel control inlet port. During the starting sequence fuel flows
through an external line from the hydromechanical fuel control to the
starting fuel solenoid inlet, shown in figure 4.20. The cockpitcontrolled
115
Figure 4.17. N2 Power Turbine.
solenoid is a twoposition
valve electrically opened and spring
loaded closed. With the valve energized to the open position, fuel
flows through an external line to the starting fuel manifold. The
start fuel manifold is a twopiece
assembly with four rigidlymounted
starting fuel nozzle attaching points. Fuel flows into the starting
nozzles located at the 2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions at the rear
of the combustor housing. The nozzles inject atomized fuel into the
combustion chamber during the starting sequence. The following
subparagraphs discuss the two fuel flow systems.
116
Figure 4.18. Exhaust Diffuser.
a. Normal fuel flow. The fuel flow continues in the fuel
control from the main metering valve to the main system outlet port.
An external line carries the fuel from the port to the
flow divider and dumpvalve
assembly. With the introduction of the
atomizing combustor configuration with dual orifice nozzles, a flow
divider dumpvalve
assembly was installed to achieve correct fuel
atomization throughout the engine operating range.
The flow divider meters fuel to the engine nozzles
according to a predetermined schedule of secondary flow versus
primary flow. A dump valve is incorporated as an integral unit to
drain the fuel trapped in the manifold and fuel lines when the engine
is shut down. The flow divider and dump valve assembly is designed
to function with fuel pressure up to 1,200 psi with an ambient
temperature of 250° F (121° C) and a fuel supply temperature from 65
°
F
117
Figure 4.19. Fuel System Components.
Figure 4.20. Starting Fuel Flow
Sequence.
(54
° C) to 200° F (93° C). The
flow divider assembly, shown in
figure 4.21 has a lower housing
containing the dump valve and an
upper housing for the flow
divider. These housings are
machined from corrosion resistant
steel casting, and sharp edges
are maintained on all metering
slots and ports.
When fuel pressure at
the inlet reaches a predetermined
value, the dump valve plunger
moves toward
118
Figure 4.21. Fuel Flow Divider.
the closed position, allowing
fuel to enter the flow divider
valve. When the inlet pressure
has reached the minimum engine
operating pressure, the dump
valve plunger is in the fully
closed position. The drain valve
seal prevents fuel from the
primary and secondary manifolds
from draining.
Fuel passes the flow
divider series orifice in the
flow divider plunger en route to
the primary manifold, creating a
pressure drop. This pressure
drop across the orifice is
sufficient to move the plunger
off its stop. As the plunger is
displaced, the secondary flow
metering ports in the plunger are
progressively opened, allowing
fuel to pass to the secondary
manifolds. From the flow
divider, fuel flows through
primary and secondary lines to
the main fuel manifold assembly
shown in figure 4.22.
From the flow divider,
fuel flows through primary and
secondary lines to the main fuel
manifold assembly. The manifold
is a twosection,
dualchanneled
assembly with eleven outlets in
each section. Each manifold half
is interchangeable, requiring
only a minor hardware adjustment
to make the change. The 22 fuel
atomizers are attached directly
to the manifolds, which discharge
the atomized fuel into the
combustion chamber.
The fuel atomizer, as
shown in figure 4. 23 is a dual
orifice injector designed to
accommodate the separate primary
and secondary fuel flow
functions. The separate orifices
spray Figure 4.22. Fuel Manifold.
119

Figure 4.23. Fuel Atomizer.
fuel into the combustion chamber through the action of the flow
divider. Fuel entering the primary section of the atomizer passes
through the primary screen and continues to flow through the center
of the nozzle to the swirl chamber located internally in the head of
the nozzle. Here it passes through three swirl slots and is
discharged into the combustion chamber at a 90° spray angle. The fine
spray density established by the primary slots is required to start
and run the engine. Higher N1 speeds require additional fuel and a
heavier density spray pattern; therefore, secondary fuel is
introduced through the nozzle at speeds above 32% N1. The secondary
flow enters
120
the outer shell of the nozzle and passes through the secondary screen
and into the secondary swirl slots. The secondary swirl slots, being
slightly larger in size than the primary swirl slots, allow a greater
volume of fuel to be discharged into the combustor. The combination
of primary and secondary flow which is delivered to the combustor at
anoptimum
spray angle of 90° is sufficient to operate the engine at
all power settings above 32% N1.
To further atomize the fuel entering the combustor liner,
swirl cones located at the aft end of the combustor liner assembly
allow combustion air to enter the liner and swirl in the opposite
direction to that of the fuel being injected by the atomizer. This
additional swirling air establishes a definite flame pattern at the
end of each atomizer. Additionally, air is routed through the air
shroud to cool the atomizers and assist in establishing this flame
pattern. When fuel flow is cut off at engine shutdown, the inlet
pressure falls below the dumpvalve
opening pressure, and the dumpvalve
plunger is moved by its spring to the fully open position. The
fuel in the primary manifold then flows to drain through the main
flow passage between the flow divider and drain valve. The secondary
manifold is drained via a small drain port in the upper housing
leading into the dumpvalve
cavity.
b. Manual fuel flow. The manual or emergency fuel flow
sequence is the same as normal fuel flow sequence except for the
fuelcontrol
changeover valve. When the changeover valve is actuated
to the manual position, fuel is redirected to the manualsystem
metering valve, which is mechanically linked to the main power
control in the cockpit. This flow path bypasses the main metering
valve. Other than that, the manual fuelflow
sequence is the same as
the normal. The fuel system on the T53L13
is similar to the one on
the T53L701.
However, the T53L701
turboprop engine has a fuel
heater to prevent fuel from icing by using engine lubricating oil to
heat the fuel. The fuel heater supplies fuel in temperature ranges
between 35 to 70° F when fuel inlet temperatures are in the 65
to
70
° F range.
4.16. INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM
The internal cooling system provides cooling air to the
internal engine components and pressurizes the number one, two, and
three main bearing seals. Cooling and pressurization air is obtained
from five parts of the engine. The following numbers in parentheses,
such as (1), (2), and so on in the discussion, correspond to similar
numbers in figure 4.24 and refer you to that particular portion of
the engine. Air flows down through the fourth stage spacer (1) into
the
121

Figure 4.24. Internal Cooling and Pressurization.
122
area between the compressor rotor sleeve and the rotor disk inside
diameters, then forward to the first stage rotor disk where it is
bled back into the compressor airstream through holes in the first
stage spacer. This airflow cools the three aluminum disks in the
compressor rotor assembly. Compressed air bled from the tip of the
centrifugal compressor impeller (2) cools the forward face of the
diffuser housing and pressurizes the No. 2 bearing forward seal, and
continues rearward through transfer tubes in the bearing housing to
pressurize the No. 2 aft oil seal. It also passes through a series
of holes in the rear compressor shaft into the space between the
rotor assembly and the power shaft. At this point, it separates into
three flow paths. Part of the compressed air, used for seal
pressurization, flows forward and through a series of holes in the
compressor front shaft. This air fills the area between the carbon
elements of the No. 1 bearing seal. The intershaft seal, located
forward of the No. 1 bearing, prevents flow of pressurized air into
the inner inlet housing area. A portion of this compressed air flows
aft over the power shaft and emerges at the aft end of the rear
compressor shaft to cool the rear face of the second gas producer
(GP) rotor, the forward face of the first power turbine (PT) rotor,
and the first stage PT nozzle. The air then passes into the exhaust
stream. The remainder of the compressed air flows through a series
of holes in the power shaft. This air flows aft, inside the power
shaft, through holes drilled in the hollow powershaft
through bolt,
and into the interior of the second PT rotor assembly. Air then
passes through a series of holes in the turbine hub and the turbine
spaces to cool the rear surface of the first PT rotor assembly, the
forward surface of the second PT rotor assembly, and both faces of
the second PT nozzle.
Compressed air, bled through slots in the mating surfaces of
the combustion chamber deflector and the air diffuser (3) cools the
forward face of the deflector and the No. 2 bearing housing. Then
the air is split into paths to cool the blade roots of the first
stage GP rotor assembly. The air then flows through holes in the
inside diameter of the GP turbine spacer to cool the hub area of the
rear face of the first GP turbine and the forward face of the second
GP turbine. The air then flows rearward where it joins the cooling
air being discharged from the aft end of the compressor shaft where
it is expelled into the exhaust stream.
Compressed air is then directed through the first stage GP
nozzle and cylinder assembly (4) to cool the rear face of the first
stage GP rotor and then into the exhaust stream.
Ambient air is used to cool the No. 3 and No. 4 bearing
housing. The air enters the exhaust diffuser struts (5) and moves
forward
123
between bearing housing walls to cool the rear face of the second
stage PT rotor assembly. As the ambient air passes the forward face
of the No. 3 bearing seal, it helps pressurize the seal.
4.17. VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM
To ensure a compressor surge margin, the angle of incidence of
the inlet air to the first compressor rotor must be within the stallfree
operating range of the compressor blades, and, because this
stallfree
operating range varies with compressor speed (N1), it is
necessary to vary the angle of attack with changes in N1 speed. This
is done by varying the angle of the inlet guide vanes. The variable
inlet guide vanes (VIGV) are located in front of the first compressor
rotor as shown in figure 4.5.
At low N1 speeds, a high angle of attack is required, while at
higher N1 speeds, the angle of attack decreases. Refer to the blocks
in figure 4.25 for the angle of attack at high and low N1 speeds.
The VIGV's are positioned by the inlet guide vane actuator
pilot valve, located in the fuel control, which monitors N1 speed and
compressor inlet temperature (T1). While setting the desired
position of the VIGV's, the actuator relays their position back to
the fuel control through an external feedback control rod to nullify
the fuel pressure signal so that at any steadystate
N1 speed between
80 and 95 percent, the inlet guide vanes will assume a constant
position. The VIGV actuator is mounted on the right side of the
compressor housing assembly, shown in figure 4.26. The actuator is
controlled by main fuel pressure from the fuel control. Two fuel
lines carry the fuel from the fuel control to the VIGV actuator.
This fuel pressure acts upon the piston inside the actuator to move
the VIGV's. The VIGV's are positioned by the inlet guide vane
actuator control rod through a synchronizing ring.
4.18 INTERSTAGE BLEED SYSTEM
The interstage bleed system, shown in figure 4.27, consists of
a bleed band, an actuator assembly, and air hoses and connectors.
The function of the system is to improve compressor acceleration
characteristics. The system automatically unloads the compressor of
a small amount of compressed air (about one tenth) during the period
in the engine acceleration cycle when faster compressor acceleration
is more desirable than the slight loss in engine power due to the air
bleed.
124

Figure 4.25. Variable Inlet Guide Vane Angle of Attack.
The air bleed actuator, shown in figure 4.28, operates by
compressor discharge air (P3)which is extracted from a port on the
right side of the air diffuser housing.
The air entering the actuator assembly passes through a filter
to the underside of the relay valve diaphragm. A small portion of
this air, which is under the diaphragm, is bled through an orifice in
the base of the relay valve assembly to an external line which
directs it to a slide valve located on the fuel regulator housing.
125
Figure 4.26. Variable Inlet Guide Vane System.
With the slide valve in the open position, this air (Pm) is
vented overboard, reducing pressure at the top surface of the
diaphragm. Simultaneously, air is being bled overboard through the
open actuator valve; this reduces pressure at the bottom surface of
the diaphragm. This equalization of pressure on both surfaces of the
diaphragm causes it to remain in a neutral position holding the relay
valve in its open position. With the actuator valve open, the
majority of the P3 air that enters the actuator assembly is vented to
the atmosphere. When the P3 pressure is vented, the actuator spring,
located on top of the actuator piston, expands and pushes the piston
downward. This causes the bleed band to open and remain open as long
as the slide valve on the fuel control is in the open position.
126

Figure 4.27. Interstage Bleed System, External Components.
When the slide valve is closed, it follows then that the bleed
band will be closed. This is accomplished by a buildup of pressure
on the top side of the relay valve diaphragm which forces the relay
valve down, closing off the overboard vent. With the overboard vent
closed, the P3 pressure is now routed into the actuator piston
assembly to move upward. This causes the bleed band to close around
the compressor bleed ports.
The entire sequence of operation is controlled by the fuel
control which senses gas producer (N1) speed, fuel flow and pilot
demand, therefore ensuring proper opening and closing of the
interstage air bleed.
4.19. ANTIICING
SYSTEM
The engine antiicing
system, shown in figure 4.29, supplies
hot air, under pressure, to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas
and inlet guide vanes when the engine is operating under icing
conditions. Pressurized hot air from the air diffuser flows through
the holes in the trailing edge of the diffuser vanes and collects in
the bleed air diffuser manifold, where it is passed to an external
bleedair
manifold located at the 1 o'clock position on the diffuser
housing. An elbow and tube are connected to the external bleedair
manifold
127
and to an adapter located on top of the impeller housing. The tube
and elbow pass air through the impeller housing to the hot air
solenoid valve.
Figure 4.28. Interstage Bleed System, Cutaway View.
128
Figure 4.29. Antiicing
System Diagram.
The hot air solenoid valve is mounted on top of the compressor
and impeller housing. The solenoidoperated
valve controls the flow
of antiicing
hot air from the diffuser to the inlet housing. It is
an electrically controlled, pneumatically operated, failsafe
valve
and will open in the event of an electrical failure.
During engine operation, the solenoid is generally energized
and the valve remains closed. When antiicing
air is needed, the
solenoid is deenergized by activating a switch in the cockpit. This
vents one side of the valve to atmospheric pressure, and the
differential pressure between diffuser pressure and atmospheric
pressure overcomes spring tension and allows antiicing
air to flow
to the inlet area. The valve will antiice
at gas producer speeds
(N1) above flight autorotation (68% 72%
N1).
After leaving the hot air solenoid valve, antiicing
air flows
forward through a tube into the port on top of the inlet housing.
This antiicing
air is then circulated through five of the six hollow
inlet housing support struts to prevent ice formation in the inlet
housing area. Antiicing
air also flows into the rear of the inlet
housing where it passes through the hollow inlet guide vanes to
prevent icing. After passing through the inlet guide vanes, the air
exits in front of the inlet guide vanes and flows into the compressor
area. Hot scavenge oil, draining through the strut at the 6 o'clock
position of the inlet housing prevents ice formation in the bottom of
the inlet housing area.
129

4.20. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The engine lubrication system consists of the main oil
pressure supply system and the oil scavenge system. The principal
components of the lubrication system are the oil filter assembly,
powerdriven
rotary oil pump, powerdriven
rotary boost pump, and
associated oil lines and internal passages. Figure 4.30 shows the
internal lubrication system for the T53L13.
The operation of the
oil system is covered in the following subparagraphs.
a. Main oil pressure supply system. Engine lubricating oil
is supplied from an aircraftmounted
oil tank. Oil enters the powerdriven
rotary oil pump, which is mounted on the N1 accessory drive
gearbox, along with the main oil filter, shown in figure 4.31A.
Filter oil is directed into two main flow paths. Oil is directed
through internal passages in the inlet housing to supply lubricating
oil to the front section of the engine, including the reduction
gearing, torquemeter, accessory drive gearing, the No. 1 main
bearing, and the power shaft forward bearing. The second oil path is
through the external oil pressure lines to the rear section of the
engine to lubricate the No. 2, 3, and 4 main bearings.
In the inlet housing section, oil is directed through the
accessory drive carrier flanges into the main oil transfer assembly
located in the rear support flange of the carrier, as illustrated in
figure 4.31(A). Oil from this passage is directed to the oil
transfer assembly for forcedfeed
spray lubrication of the reduction
gears through three oil transfer tubes. Oil flows through internal
passages in the output reduction carrier liner, under pressure, to
three jets in the liner. One jet sprays oil forward, lubricating the
main output shaft bearing runner, the second lubricates the reduction
gear forward bearing, and the third sprays aft, lubricating the
output gear shaft bearing.
Oil from the transfer tube sprays against the output shaft
plug deflector. This deflector is manufactured with a predetermined
angle to splash the oil rearward, to lubricate the sun gear and power
shaft splines. Three oil jets located 120 degrees apart in the main
oiltransfer
assembly, shown in figure 4.31(A), direct oil to the
rear planetary support bearings. The main oiltransfer
support
assembly also houses an oil jet positioned so that high pressure oil
is directed to impinge or the power shaft bearing runner, thus
lubricating the bearing. Machined oil grooves in the accessory drive
carrier assembly, illustrated in figure 4.31A(B), transport oil
through an internal strainer to an oil nozzle located in the power
shaft support bearing retainer. The oil nozzle has three machined
jets. The first
130

Figure 4.30. Internal Lubrication (T53L13).
131
Figure 4.31A(B)(C). Lubrication Flow Diagram.
132
jet is positioned to lubricate the accessory drive pinion gear, the
second jet is designed to lubricate the number one main bearing
runner, and the third jet is positioned to lubricate the main
bearing. Surplus oil from the number one main bearing and pinion
gear also lubricates the accessory drive shaft support bearings. The
number one main bearing and the accessory drive pinion gear are
lubricated by oil from a transfer tube located in the accessory drive
carrier assembly. Oil under a constant pressure from the transfer
assembly lubricates the power shaft support bearing.
Oil from a third transfer passage is directed from the
main transfer assembly up through an inlet housing strut to the
powerdriven
rotary booster pump. This pump is mounted on the
overspeed governor and tachometer drive assembly. The assembly
includes a pressure regulating valve that governs the output pressure
of the rotary torquemeter boost pump by circulating the excess
pressurized oil back to the inlet housing. The pressurized oil from
the rotary booster pump is directed back through an inlet housing
strut to the torquemeter cylinder, shown in figure 4.31A(C).
An offset passage in the overspeed governor mounting
flange directs engine oil to the strainer and metering cartridge in
the overspeed governor gearbox. An additional transfer passage from
the main transfer support assembly directs oil through internal
passages in the inlet housing to the power takeoff mounting flange.
This oil passes through a strainer and metering orifice,
which lubricates accessories driven by the engine, mounted on the
power takeoff. Oil flow to the rear section of the engine is
supplied from an oil pressure port at the 5 o'clock position in the
inlet housing through an external hose to a pressure manifold. The
manifold is mounted on the forward face of the diffuser housing. Oil
is directed from the bottom of the manifold through a strainer
mounted on the diffuser housing, shown at L in figure 4.31B, to the
No. 2 main bearing. Oil is directed from the top of this manifold
through an external hose and strainer, shown in H in figure 4.31B,
through the upper strut in the exhaust diffuser and directed through
the power turbine oil tube at F in figure 4.31B. The oil tube
consists of two jets; one directs oil to the forward face of the No.
4 bearing runner, and the second jet lubricates the aft face of the
No. 3 bearing runner. Oil is also directed through a horizontal tube
forward to the No. 3 bearing seal.
133

THIS PAGE WAS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
(continued on next page)
Figure 4.31B. Lubrication Flow Diagram.
135a
(continued from previous page)
135b
THIS PAGE WAS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
b. Oil scavenge system. All internal scavenge oil from the
inlet housing section drains through a hollow support strut to the
bottom of the inlet housing through a scavenge strainer and transfer
tube, and into the accessory drive gearbox. Scavenge oil from the
output reduction carrier and gear assembly flows by gravity into the
hollow inlet housing struts.
Scavenge oil from the No. 1 main bearing is pumped to the
inlet housing struts by an impeller or paddle pump located on the
rear of the bearing. Scavenge oil from the No. 2 main bearing flows
through a scavenge oil tube, illustrated at G in figure 4.31B, in the
diffuser housing and is directed to the accessory drive gearbox by an
external scavenge oil hose assembly. Scavenge oil from the No. 3 and
4 bearings, as shown in figure 4.31B(F), flows through an oil tube
that extends through the bottom of the exhaust diffuser and is
directed to the accessory drive gearbox by an external oil scavenge
hose assembly. The scavenge portion of the powerdriven
rotary oil
pump returns scavenge oil from the accessory drive gearbox through
the aircraft oil cooler to the aircraft oil storage tank.
4.21. TORQUEMETER SYSTEM
The torquemeter shown in figure 4.32 is used on the T53L13;
it is a hydromechanical torquemeasuring
device located in the
reductiongear
section of the inlet housing. It uses boosted engine
oil to measure engine torque effort; the measurement is read in the
cockpit as torque oil pressure in psi. Although this system uses
engine oil, it is not a part of the lubrication system. The
following numbers in parentheses correspond to the numbers in figure
4.32.
The mechanical portion of the torquemeter consists of two
circular plates. One is attached to the inlet housing and is
identified as the stationary plate (1). The second, or movable plate
(2) is attached to the reduction gear assembly (6). The movable
plate contains front and rear torquemeter sealing rings (12), which
enable it to function as a piston in the rigidly mounted cylinder
(3). The cylinder assembly houses the variableopening
torquemeter
(poppet) valve (4). The movable plate maintains the fixedorifice
metered bleed (13), which functions in relation with the poppet
valve. The movable plate is separated from the stationary plate by
steel balls (5) positioned in matched conical sockets machined in the
surfaces of both plates. When the engine is not operating, the
torquemeter movable plate is a position forward and clear of the
torquemeter valve plunger, allowing the springloaded
valve to remain
in the closed position. With the engine operating and a load applied
to the output shaft (14), the torque
137

Figure 4.32. Torquemeter Diagram.
138
developed in the engine to drive the shaft is transmitted from the
sun gear (11) through the reduction gear assembly. The attached
movable plate tends to rotate with the assembly. However, this
mechanically limited radial movement positions the steel balls
against the conical sockets of both plates, resulting in the movable
plate being axially directed rearward in the assembly.
The plate, moving rearward, contacts the torquemeter valve
plunger, opening the valve and allowing oil to flow into the
cylinder. This contact is maintained during all engine operation,
and the size of the valve opening varies as the plate moves rearward
or forward. As torque continues to increase and the torquemeter
valve opens further, oil pressure increases in the cylinder but will
not exceed the boost pump pressure because of the metered bleed (13).
The oil pressure developed in the cylinder exerts pressure
against the piston (movable plate), restraining the rearward
movement. With the engine operating in a steadystate
condition the
cylinder oil pressure and movement of the plate hold in an equalized
position.
A factor affecting torque indications is the air pressure that
develops in the inlet housing at high power settings. This air
pressure produces a force oh the forward face of the piston (movable
plate) inducing a higher torque indication than is actually being
delivered. From the port on the forward face of the accessory drive
gearbox, the air pressure is vented to the airframemounted
torquemeter transmitter.
The pressurized oil from the torquemeter cylinder is also
directed to the transmitter from a port at the 3 o'clock position of
the inlet housing. The transmitter cancels the air pressure effect,
resulting in a true torquemeter indication at the instrument in the
cockpit.
A powerdriven
rotary (booster) pump, containing pressure and
scavenge elements is mounted on and driven by the overspeed governor
and tachometer drive assembly. Each element is an individual pumping
unit and draws oil from a separate source. The pressure element
receives engine lubricating oil and delivers it, at a boosted
pressure, to the torquemeter valve. Excess oil flows back to the
inlet side of the pump. A relief valve in the overspeed governor and
tachometer drive assembly sets the powerdriven
rotary (booster) pump
outlet pressure. The scavenge element receives oil from the
overspeed governor and tachometer drive gear housing and delivers it
to the oil return passages in the inlet housing assembly.
139

The Lycoming T53L7
01 uses an electric torquemeter system
to monitor power output. The Avco Lycoming electric torquemeter is a
refined torque measuring system which measures torque imposed on the
engine power output shaft. The torque signal is a result of tension
and compression stresses changing the magnetic reluctance of the
shaft.
The torque system is comprised of five components and their
interconnecting wiring. Two of these, the power supply and the
indicator, are airframe mounted components and may be replaced at any
time without recalibration. The remaining three, the power output
shaft, the head assembly (transformer), and junction box, must be
replaced only as a precalibrated
set.
The transformer consists of one primary and two secondary
windings. The primary generates a constant magnetic field which
penetrates the transformer core attached to the primary sun gear.
The voltage induced in the two secondaries varies with the tension
and compression stresses imposed on the shaft. This difference in
secondary voltage is transmitted through the junction box and is read
on the cockpit indicator as psi of torque. Figure 4.33 is a cross
section of the inlet housing to show relationship of power output
shaft, torquemeter head assembly, and torquemeter junction box.
4.22. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The engine electrical system consists of the main wiring
harness and connectors for electrical components as shown in figure
4.34. The airframe and engine wiring diagram is shown in figure
4.35. The following subparagraphs briefly discuss the operation of
the engine electrical system.
a. Ignition system. The highenergy,
mediumvoltage,
capacitordischarge
ignition system consists of an ignitionexciter
unit, output leads, sparksplitter
coil, and four surfacegap
igniter
plugs. The system is activated simultaneously with the start fuel
solenoid valve and starter by a switch in the cockpit. The ignition
system is used only for engine starting and not for sustaining
combustion.
Power from the 28v dc electrical system is stepped up in
the exciter unit to 2,500 volts and discharged through igniter plugs
in the combustion chamber at a spark rate of two to eight per second.
140

Figure 4.33. Torquemeter System (T53L701).
b. Exhaust gas temperature harness. An exhaust thermocouple
harness, consists of an electrical connector, a shielded manifold,
and six thermocouples, as shown in figure 4.36.
141
Figure 4.34. Electrical System.
142
Figure 4.35. Electrical Wiring Diagram.
143
Figure 4.36. Exhaust Thermocouple
Harness.
The thermocouples are
inserted through the exhaust
diffuser into the exhaust gas
flow. When heated by the exhaust
gas, an electromotive force(emf)
is generated. Any two dissimilar
metals placed in contact with
each other generate a small
voltage if heated at that
junction. The amount of voltage
produced varies with the metals
used and the temperature they are
heated to. Electrically, the
thermocouples are connected in
parallel with each other. This
results in an average temperature
reading. If one thermocouple
becomes inoperative an average reading of the remaining ones will
result. The thermocouples and their leads are made of chromel and
alumel. Chromel is an alloy of nickel and chromium. Alumel is an
alloy of nickel, manganese, aluminum, and silicon. The accuracy of
the thermocouple harness is +5° at 1292° F (700° C).
4.23. SUMMARY
The major engine assemblies are the inlet, accessory gearbox,
compressor, diffuser, and combustor turbine assembly. The inlet
housings on both the T53L15
and T53L701
have a propeller
reduction gear assembly.
Fuel is metered by a hydromechanical fuel control to twentytwo
atomizers. The fuel control has two modes of operation: normal,
and manual fuel flow. The internal cooling and pressurization system
provides cooling air to internal engine parts and pressurizes the
main bearing seals. The engine has variable inlet guide vanes to
ensure a
144
compressor surgefree
margin. The interstage bleed system
automatically unloads the compressor of a small amount of air during
engine acceleration. The antiicing
system supplies hot air, under
pressure, to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas and inlet guide
vanes. Oil is supplied for lubrication by the oil pressure supply
system and is scavenged by the scavenge oil system. The torquemeter
is a hydromechanical, torquemeasuring
device that indicates engine
torque in psi. Ignition for starting is produced by a highenergy,
mediumvoltage,
capacitordischarge
system. Exhaust gas temperature
is measured by six thermocouples inserted in the exhaust gas flow.
145

Chapter 5
LYCOMING T55
5.1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers the Lycoming T55 gas turbine engine.
Section I gives an operational description of the T55, covering the
engine's five sections. Section II covers in detail each of the
engine's sections and major systems.
Basically, all models of the T55 are of the same design. The
major difference between the T5 5L7C
and L11
engines is that the
L11
has a twostage
gas producer turbine and the L7C
uses a singlestage
gas producer turbine. However, the description and information
given in this chapter are applicable to all models of the T55 except
where noted. The Lycoming T55 engine is used to power the CH47
Chinook helicopter.
Section I. Operational Description of the T55 Gas Turbine Engine.
5.2. GENERAL
This section describes in detail the inlet, compressor,
diffuser, combustion, and power turbine sections, and the differences
between models and specifications are compared.
Except for the discussion comparing models and specifications,
the section's coverage is limited to the T55L7C
and 11A
engines.
5.3. DESCRIPTION
The T55 gas turbine engine is a directdrive,
annular reverse
flow, freepower
turboshaft engine developed for use in rotarywing
aircraft. An exploded view of the T55L11A
engine is shown in
figure 5.1.
The engine consists of an air inlet, accessory drive,
compressor, diffuser, combustion, and power turbine sections. All
the sections, except the accessory drive, form an annular (circular)
flow path for air and hot gases. in addition, all the sections are
structurally interdependent. The T55 is a direct drive engine,
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Figure 5.1. Exploded View of T55L11A
Engine.
meaning it has no gear reduction, and the power output shaft speed is
the same as the power turbine speed. The airflow paths through the
T55L7
and L11A
engines are shown in figures 5.2 and 5.3
respectively.
147
Figure 5.2. Engine T55L7
Series.
Figure 5.3. Engine T55L11
Series.
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At the front of the engine, the inlet housing forms an annular
airflow path to the inlet guide vanes (IGV) which are variable on the
T55L11A
engine.
An airflow path is between the inner diameter of the housing
and the base contours of the compressor stages. The compressor rotor
has seven axial and one centrifugal stage compressor. The diffuser
channel contains radial vanes which straighten the airflow from the
centrifugal compressor. These vanes increase the static air pressure
to its highest pressure at the diffuser exit. Air passes into the
combustor section where its flow direction is changed twice. Flowing
rearward from the diffuser, the air surrounds and enters the
combustor liner through holes and louvers, and 28 swirl cups reverse
the airflow direction for the first time. Each swirl cup contains a
dualorifice,
fuelatomizing
nozzle. As combustion occurs, the hot
expanding gases move forward to the curl assembly, again reversing
the flow. The T55L7
uses 14 "T" cane vaporizer tubes to inject the
fuel for combustion.
The gas flow is directed by the first and second stage nozzles
to the twostage
gasproducer
(GP) turbine. The T55L7C
engines use
a singlestage
GP turbine. These turbines are attached to the rear
of the compressor rotor shaft and extract the energy required to turn
the compressor.
From the second stage turbine of the L1A
engine, the gas flow
continues through the power turbine (PT) section. Most of the
remaining energy of the hot gases is extracted by the twostage
PT
and is transmitted by the power shaft to the power output shaft.
After the expanding gases have passed through the PT section they are
exhausted to the atmosphere through the exhaust duct.
5.4. MODEL COMPARISON
The T55 series gas turbine engines are used to power the CH47
Chinook helicopter. The CH47B
is powered by either the Lycoming
T55L7,
7B,
or 7C
turboshaft engines. The CH47C
is powered by
either T55L7C
or T55Lll
engines.
Basically, the Lycoming T55 series engines are of the same
design and differ only in shaft horsepower and internal details. The
T55L7
and 7B
engines are rated at 2,200 shp at normal power and
2,650 at military power. The T55L7C
engine is rated at 2,400 shp
at normal power, 2,650 at military power, and 2,850 at maximum power.
The T55L11
engine is rated at 3,000 shp at normal power, 3,400 at
military power, and 3,750 at maximum power.
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The T55L7C
engine differs from the other T55L7
series
engines in the following ways: (1) an atomizing combustor is used as
opposed to the vaporizing type; (2) the 14 vaporizer "T" canes are
replaced by 28 dualorifice
fuel spray nozzles for injecting fuel
into the combustor; (3) four ignitors and start fuel nozzles are
installed to ensure optimum ignition and flame propagation during
starting. However, only two of the four start fuel nozzles are used;
(4) a modified fuel control is used.
In addition, the T55L11A
differs from the T55L7
series in
the following: (1)a twostage
gas producer(GP) turbine is used; (2) a
more accurate electric torquemeter with an indicator reading in
percent of maximum torque; (3) five thermocouple probes, that measure
the gas temperature at the power turbine inlet; and (4) variable
inlet guide vanes to improve compressor efficiency.
5.5. SPECIFICATION SUMMARY
Specifications for the T55L7,
7C
and 11
engines used in
Army aircraft are summarized in the following chart.
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5.6. DIRECTIONAL REFERENCES AND ENGINE STATIONS
The diagrams in figure 5.4 and 5.5 show directional references
and engine stations. Right and left sides of the engine are
determined by viewing the engine from the rear. Direction of
rotation of the compressor rotor and gas producer turbines is
counterclockwise as viewed from the rear of the engine. The power
turbine and the output gearshaft rotate in a clockwise direction.
Figure 5.4. T55 Engine Directional References.
Engine stations for the T55L11A
are shown in figure 5.5. The
compressor housing is station No. 1 starting from the inlet guide
vanes and extending to the centrifugal compressor. Station No. 2
starts at the beginning of the centrifugal compressor and ends at the
air diffuser. Station No. 3 is from the air diffuser exit to the
combustor inlet. Station No. 4 runs from the combustor inlet to the
gas producer (GP) entrance. Station No. 5 is the GP entrance,
station No. 7 is from the GP exit to the PT entrance. Station 7.2 is
the PT entrance, and station No. 9 is the PT exit. No stations are
shown for 6 and 8, because these numbers are not used.
151
Figure 5.5. T55L11
Engine Stations.
5.7. SUMMARY
Basically, all models of the T55 series engine are of the same
design and principle. The major difference between the L7
and L7C
is that the L7C
uses 28 atomizing nozzles instead of the 14
vaporizing tubes in the L7
engine. The T55L11A
differs from the
T55L7C
in that it has a twostage
GP turbine where the L7C
has a
singlestage,
and of course the shp is different for each model
engine. The engine consists of an air inlet, accessory drive,
compressor, diffuser, and combustion and power turbine sections. The
T55
series engine differs from engines we have previously covered in
that it is a direct drive engine. The Lycoming T55 series engine is
used to power the CH47
Chinook helicopter.
Section II. Major Engine Sections and Systems
5.8. GENERAL
This section discusses the five major engine sections,
beginning at the front: inlet, compressor, diffuser, combustion, and
power turbine; then it continues with descriptions of various engine
systems, including fuel, lubrication, and electrical systems. The
text and illustrations cover the T55L11A
engine except where noted.
152
5.9. INLET SECTION
The air inlet housing is a onepiece
magnesium alloy casting,
with an inner and outer housing as shown in figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6. Inlet Housing Assembly.
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Four engine mounting pads are on the inlet housing. The front
face of the inner housing includes studs to mount the engine oil tank
cover plate and a speed reduction gearbox. The inner housing, figure
5.6 item 9, contains the output shaft, the compressor rotor forward
bearing support structure, the torquemeter head assembly, and a 3.75gallon
oil tank. The outer housing forms the outer wall for the
annular inlet duct. Four struts make the structural connection
between the two housings. The struts are hollow and have passages
for oil and accessory drive shafts.
5.10. COMPRESSOR SECTION
The compressor rotor assembly, shown in figure 5.7, consists
of a sevenstage,
allsteel
axial compressor and an alltitanium
centrifugal compressor. The two compressors form a single rotating
assembly providing an 8 to 1 compression ratio.
All axial compressor blades are stainless steel and mounted on
steel compressor disks by dovetail roots and springloaded
locking
pins. Seven twopiece
stator assemblies are bolted to a twopiece
cast magnesium compressor housing, which encloses the axial and
centrifugal rotors. The housing is split axially to permit complete
access to the compressor rotor for inspection and blade replacement.
The internal surfaces of these housings are coated with epoxy
phenolic and graphite filler. The external surfaces are treated with
epoxy phenolic gray paint.
On the L111
engine, a variable inlet guide vane assembly is
mounted in the front of the compressor housing. The axial compressor
housing has an airbleed system consisting of a series of holes and
machined passages. The system bleeds air from the sixth stage and
thereby improves compressor performance. This system is controlled
by an interstage airbleed system covered later in the chapter.
5.11. DIFFUSER SECTION
The air diffuser, shown in item 1 figure 5.8, is constructed
of stainless steel. The diffuser receives highvelocity
air from the
centrifugal impeller. This radial airflow is changed to an axial
flow by longitudinal guide. The divergent shape of the diffuser
decreases velocity and increases air pressure. Air pressure at the
diffuser discharge is at its highest value; air temperature is in the
vicinity of 600° F. Temperature and pressure are directly related to
rotational speed of the compressor. Internally, the diffuser supports
154
Figure 5.7. Compressor Section.
155
the rear of the Compressor assembly through the No. 2 main bearing.
Also mounted internally, but not a component of the diffuser, are the
combustion chamber deflector curl, first and second stage GP nozzles,
and turbine rotors.
Figure 5.8. Diffuser and Gas Producer Turbine.
5.12. COMBUSTOR SECTION
The combustion chamber is a reverseflow
annular design, which
permits maximum use of space and reduces gas producer and power
turbine shaft length.
The atomizing combustor has 28 main fuel atomizing nozzles.
The nozzles are of the dualorifice
design mounted in two
interchangeable, dualchannel,
main fuel manifolds, with 14 fuel
nozzles in each manifold.
The perforated combustor liner, shown in figure 5.9, is
manufactured from a heatresistant
alloy. The perforations are
arranged to meter air into the combustor for combustion and cooling.
Two combustor drain valves are located at the bottom of the chamber,
to drain raw fuel on engine shutdown after a false or aborted start.
Fuel is injected directly into the combustor through the atomizing
nozzles which are mounted on the fuel manifold at the rear of the
combustor.
156
Figure 5.9. Combustion Chamber Housing Assembly.
5.13. TURBINE SECTION
The gas producer turbines on the T5 5-L-11 engine are two-stage, axial-flow turbines coupled
together and mounted on the rear of the compressor rotor shaft. The gas producer turbine nozzles and
rotors are shown in figure 5.10.
The gas producer turbine blades are air-cooled hollow blades held in place on the disk by
pins. Ahead of the first and second stage rotors are the gas producer nozzles, which direct the hot gas
onto the turbine rotors. The power turbine assembly is shown in figure 5.11.
The power turbine is a two-stage, axial-flow turbine coupled together and mounted on the
power turbine shaft. The power shaft transmits power from the power turbines to the power output
shaft. Basically, the function of the power turbine is to extract velocity
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energy from the hot gases and deliver mechanical power to the output shaft. The GP and PT systems
are mechanically independent of each other; however, their speeds are controlled by the fuel control
unit.
Figure 5.10. Gas Producer Assembly.
5.14. DESCRIPTION OF FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system of the T55- L-11 engine consists of the components illustrated in figure 5.
12. The T55-L-7 engine uses 14 vaporizing tubes in place of the 28 dual atomizing nozzles on the L-7C
and L-11 engine. A cross-section view of the flow divider and atomizing nozzles may be seen by
referring to figure 4.21 and 4.23 in chapter 4. The following subparagraphs discuss the components in
the fuel system.
158

Figure 5.11. Power Turbine Assembly.
159
Figure 5.12. T55-L-11A Fuel System.
160
a. Fuel control. The hydromechanical fuel control contains a dual-element fuel pump, gas
producer and power-turbine speed governors, an acceleration and deceleration control, an airbleed signal
mechanism, and a fuel shutoff valve. Functionally, the fuel control unit can be divided into two
sections: the flow control section and the computer section. A flow control schematic is shown in figure
5.13. The flow control section meters engine fuel flow. The computer section schedules the positioning
of the metering valves in the flow control section. The computer section also signals the actuation of
the compressor bleed band and the variable inlet vanes systems.
b. Liquid-to-liquid cooler. From the fuel control, fuel passes through the cooler mounted
on the engine compressor housing. The cooler uses fuel to aid in cooling the engine oil. The cooler is a
counter-flow type with the fuel passing through small aluminum tubes. The heat from the oil is
transferred to the fuel. This type of cooler serves two purposes, to cool the oil and heat the fuel to aid
in better atomization. A liquid-to-liquid cooler is illustrated in chapter 2, figure 2.12.
c. Start fuel system. The electrically operated, normally closed igniter fuel solenoid valve
is located on the compressor housing at the 9 o'clock position. The solenoid valve is actuated by a
switch in the cockpit that energizes the valve and allows fuel to flow from the fuel control unit through
the starting manifold and to the start fuel nozzles. On T55-L-5 and T55-L-7 engines, two start nozzles
are connected to the starting fuel manifold at approximately the 3 and 9 o'clock positions. Starting fuel
passes through these nozzles into the combustion chamber where it is ignited by a spark from an igniter
plug adjacent to each start fuel nozzle. On T5 5-L-7C engines, four start fuel nozzles are connected to
the starting fuel manifold at approximately the 1, 4, 7, and 10 o'clock positions.
d. Main fuel system. The main and start fuel manifold are positioned on the rear surface
of the combustion chamber assembly. The main fuel manifold consists of two manifold halves, with
attaching points for 14 fuel vaporizer tubes. The main fuel manifolds for the T55-L-7 and L-7C/11A
are shown in figure 5.14.
The T55-L-7C and T55-L-11 engines have an improved fuel system. This system
illustrated in figure 5.15 consists of 28 dual-orifice fuel nozzles in a two-section main fuel manifold. A
flow divider was added to meter fuel to the fuel nozzles at 9 to 10 percent N1; as the rpm increases to
32 percent N1, secondary fuel flows to the nozzles.
161
Figure 5.13. Fuel Control Flow Schematic.
162
Figure 5.14. Main Fuel Manifolds.
163
Figure 5.15. T55-L-11 Main and Start Fuel Flow.
164
5.15. INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM
The internal cooling system cools internal components and ensures extended engine service.
A combination of several passages throughout the engine receives air from the main air-flow channel
and directs it to cool components located within heat-generating areas. The exits from the cooling
passages conduct the heated air to the main exhaust gas flow.
Some of the cooling air is extracted for bearing seal pressurization. This internal airflow is
guided to the appropriate bearing seal to protect against oil seepage while the engine is in operation.
5.16. ANTI-ICING SYSTEM
The engine inlet is protected from ice forming on it by the anti-icing system. The walls and
struts of the inlet housing have internal passages through which hot, scavenged engine oil circulates.
The variable inlet guide vanes are supplied with hot air which is extracted from the centrifugal
compressor. The engine hot-air anti-icing system is shown in the schematic in figure 5.16.
This air first passes through a hot-air valve and is distributed by a tube which directs the air
into an annulus (circular structure) around the inlet-guide vane assembly. The anti-icing air is routed
through the stem of the vanes and is discharged at the base of the leading edge into the main airflow.
5.17. VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM
The inlet guide vane assembly, located in front of the first compressor rotor, consists of a
series of hollow blades positioned mechanically by a hydraulically operated synchronizing ring. The
guide vane control system schedules the positions of the variable inlet guide vanes in response to gas
producer speed and compressor inlet temperature. At low N1 speeds, a high angle of inlet air is required,
and the inlet guide vanes are in the closed position of approximately 45.5° of the engine centerline.
Guide vane positions are illustrated in figure 5.17.
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Figure 5.16. Hot-Air Anti-icing System.
When engine speed increases above 65 percent, the inlet guide vanes begin to open. The
progression toward the open position is proportional to compressor speed. At 98 percent speed, the
vanes are opened to 7° off the centerline, and as speed increases to 100 percent, the vanes cross the
centerline to the -4.5° position. At any steady state N1 speed, between 65 percent and 98 percent, the
inlet guide vanes assume a constant position.
5.18. INTERSTAGE AIR BLEED SYSTEM
An interstage air bleed actuator assembly and bleed band, illustrated in figure 4.27, are used
to facilitate compressor rotor acceleration and avoid compressor stalls. A series of vent ports around the
compressor housing, at the sixth stage of compression,
166
Figure 5.17. Angles of Variable Inlet Guide Vane.
167
Figure 5.18. Interstage Airbleed
Band Assembly.
permits compressor air to bleed off and allows a
more rapid acceleration. The pneumatic
interstage-actuator assembly controls operation of
the air bleed system by tightening or loosening a
metal band over the vent holes in the compressor
housing. The bleed band and actuator assembly
are shown in figure 5.18. The fuel control is
equipped with an acceleration air bleed
adjustment that sets the compressor rotor speed at
which the interstage air bleed closes. This is
usually factory set to close the bleed band at
approximately 30 percent of normal rated power.
5.19. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The engine lubrication system has the
dual function of lubricating and cooling. The
principal components of the system are the
integral oil tank, dual element lubrication pump,
filter and screen assemblies, oil cooler assembly,
oil level indicator assembly, and internal scavenge
pumps. The entire lubrication system
is self-contained within the engine. A 3.75-gallon oil tank is located in the engine air inlet housing. The
tank filler neck is located at the top center of the inlet housing. Oil level indication is taken by means of
an externally-mounted mechanical indicator. Two connections, one at the top and one at the bottom of
the tank, are for the addition of an external oil tank to increase the oil capacity. The following
subparagraphs discuss the lubrication system and components.
a. Oil level indication system. The oil tank has an oil level indicator mounted on the left
side of the inlet housing at the 9-o'clock position and can be read from the top or the side. The
indicator contains a low-level warning switch for remote indication in the cockpit. Based on using the
maximum allowable oil consumption rate, the switch is set to signal when there is a 2-hour supply of
usable oil remaining.
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b. Oil flow. Oil from the tank flows from the bottom of the engine inlet housing through
an external line to the pressure side of the main oil pump. The oil flow may be followed by referring to
the schematic shown in figure 5.19.
The main oil pump is located on the aft face of the accessory gearbox. I contains both
pressure and scavenge elements. An adjustable relief valve in the pump maintains nearly constant oil
pressure during engine operation. Oil goes from the pump and through a filter located in the accessory
gearbox. A bypass valve will open if the filter becomes clogged. On the outlet side of the filter, oil
temperature is measured by a temperature bulb. Then the oil is routed through the oil cooler into two
external low paths. One flow path directs the oil to the rear of the engine. At that location it lubricates
number 2, 4, and 5 bearings. The second flow path directs oil to the front bearings and accessory drive
gear trains. Oil from the rear bearings is force-scavenged into an external oil-return line by paddle
pumps mounted on the power turbine shaft. This scavenge oil is directed back to the accessory gearbox.
A scavenge impeller in the accessory gearbox picks up the scavenge oil and pumps it to
the scavenge element of the main oil pump. The oil is then returned to the inlet housing where it is
discharged into the oil tank.
c. Chip detectors. On the T55-L-7,
the engine magnetic chip detector is located in
the scavenge-pump housing on the lower left face
of the accessory gearbox. The detector attracts
ferrous material, which builds up until it bridges a
gap, as shown in the accompanying sketch. This
makes it possible to check for the presence of
foreign material by checking continuity across the
contacts. The detectors are electrically connected
to caution lights in the cockpit.
The T55-L-11 engine is equipped with three chip detectors. Each bearing scavenge line
dual chip detector is mounted externally. Each detects ferrous and nonferrous metal chips originating in
the No. 2, 4, and 5 bearing areas of the engine. Another is located near the gearbox scavenge impeller.
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Figure 5.19. Lubrication System Schematic, T55-L-11.
170
Figure 5.20. Main Oil Filter.
d. Engine oil filters. The oil filter
system consists of a main oil filter assembly and
five secondary oil filters. Three of these filters
are accessible for intermediate level maintenance.
These are the No. 2 bearing strainer, located at
the 3 o'clock position on the forward face of the
diffuser housing assembly, and the No. 4 and 5
bearing strainers located in the supply tube within
the exhaust diffuser. The main oil filter
assembly, illustrated in figure 5.20, is mounted on
the bottom of the accessory gearbox directly in
front of the main oil pump, or fuel boost pump.
5.20. TORQUE METER SYSTEM
The Lycoming Electric Torquemeter
used on the T55 engine is the same type that is
used on the T53-L-701 covered in the previous
chapter. To save describing the system in detail
again, this paragraph is a brief review. When
torque is imposed on the engine power output
shaft, tension and compression stresses change the
magnetic reluctance of the shaft. This change in
magnetic reluctance is transmitted to an indicator
in the cockpit and read as percent (%) of torque.
5.21. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The engine electrical system includes circuitry to facilitate starting, ignition, anti-icing, and all
engine-oriented electrical monitoring devices. The following subparagraphs discuss the operation of the
engine electrical system.
a. Main electrical cable assembly. The main electrical cable assembly furnishes all
necessary interconnecting wiring between the main disconnect plug and the nine-branch electrical
connectors. The nine electrical accessories served by this cable are the gas producer tachometer
generator, oil temperature bulb, fuel flow pressure switch, torquemeter system, ignition exciter,
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anti-icing solenoid valve, starting fuel solenoid valve, oil level indicator, and power turbine tachometer
generator. The main disconnect plug mates with an electrical receptacle of the airframe wiring,
establishing electrical continuity to the various airframe components.
b. Ignition exciter. The high-potential ignition pulse is developed by the ignition exciter;
24 volts dc is applied to the input of the exciter. Current flows through the primary transformer
winding the bias coil and the vibrator points to ground. This generates magnetic lines of force which
permeate the transformer core and the core of the bias coil attracting the vibrator reed upward and
interrupting the circuit. As current flow ceases, the lines of force collapse and the reed falls back,
closing the circuit. This cycle repeats at a rate proportional to the input voltage. The resultant current
flows in pulses, causing magnetic lines of force to build up and collapse with each pulsation. These lines
induce voltage across the secondary coil which is transformed to a higher potential by an increased
number of windings comprising the secondary. The diodes rectify the pulsating current back into direct
current to charge the capacitors. The charge on the capacitors continues to build up at a rate
proportional to input voltage, until a potential of 2,500 volts exists. The calibrated spark gaps ironize at
this voltage, creating an electrical path for the firing pulse. The capacitors discharge through this path
into the lead and coil assembly for distribution to each of the spark igniters.
Radio frequency energy is generated within the exciter during normal operation. An
inductive capacitive filter has been incorporated at the input to prevent this energy from being fed back
into the 24-volt input line. Radio frequency interference on this line could be detrimental to the
operation of other electrical accessories. This filter is tuned to radio frequencies and does not offer any
appreciable opposition to the flow of 24-volt direct current.
c. Ignition lead and coil assembly. The ignition lead and coil assembly constitutes the
high-potential ignition wiring. This assembly incorporates two coils, fed with high voltage from the two
outputs of the ignition exciter. The coil assemblies function as spark splitters distributing high voltage to
four igniter plugs. Each coil assembly has one input and two outputs with the coil windings forming a
transformer having a 1:1 ratio. Any current flowing through either winding will induce a voltage across
the other so that even a shorted igniter plug will not short out the high-voltage ignition signal. The
entire wiring harness is shielded and grounded at the airframe to suppress radio frequency interference.
172
d. Exhaust gas temperature harness. The chromel-alumel, thermoelectric measuring
system is independent of all other engine electrical wiring. The engine components are ten
thermocouple probes to the shielded harness. The aircraft wiring, spool resistor, and indicator complete
the system. The ten thermocouple probes protrude into the gas flow of the engine at station number 7.
The probes react to variations in power turbine entry temperature by developing a proportional
electromotive force across the chromel-alumel junction. This electromotive force results in meter
deflection of the cockpit indicator calibrated to read temperature in degrees centigrade.
5.22. SUMMARY
The T55 series gas turbine engine is used to power the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. The CH-
47A and B are equipped with the T55-L-7 series engines, and the CH-47C is equipped with the T55-L-
7C or T55-L-l1. These are all basically the same except for shaft horsepower ratings and internal details.
The fuel system includes starting and main fuel components. The fuel control is a hydromechanical
device that automatically meters the proper amount of fuel under varying atmospheric conditions and
power requirements. The engine has its own lubrication system with the oil tank contained within the
inlet housing. It is equipped with an interstage bleed air system to facilitate acceleration and avoid
compressor stalls. The anti-icing system prevents icing by ducting hot air from the diffuser section to
the engine inlet. The engine has a starting and ignition system, and its performance is monitored by
instruments on the cockpit instrument panel.
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Chapter 6
SOLAR T62 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
6.1. INTRODUCTION
The SOLAR T62 auxiliary power unit (APU) is used in place of ground support equipment to
start some helicopter engines. It is also used to operate the helicopter hydraulic and electrical systems
when this aircraft is on the ground, to check their performance. The T62 is a component of both the
CH-47 and CH-54 helicopters -- part of them, not separate like the ground-support-equipment APU's.
On the CH-54, the component is called the auxiliary powerplant rather than the auxiliary power unit, as
it is on the CH-47. The two T62's differ slightly.
This chapter describes the T62 APU; explains its operation; discusses the reduction drive,
accessory drive, combustion, and turbine assemblies; and describes the fuel, lubrication, and electrical
systems.
6.2. DESCRIPTION
The T62 gas turbine engine auxiliary unit consists of a combustor, turbine, reduction drive
and accessory drive assemblies, engine accessories, plumbing, and wiring. The engine has a single shaft
with the compressor and turbine rotor mounted back-to-back.
The T62 develops approximately 70 shaft horsepower. It has its own fuel control unit,
hydraulic starter motor, ignition unit, and reduction gear drive. Operating time for the APU is
maintained separately from aircraft engine time by an hour meter mounted on the APU. The T62 used
on the CH-47 differs slightly from the one used on the CH-54. The accompanying table IV gives the
particulars for each engine.
Both models of the T62 are shown in figures 6.1 and 6.2.
6.3. THEORY OF OPERATION
The T62 gas turbine engine consists of three major sections: the reduction and accessory
drives, the combustor, and the turbine sections as shown in figures 6.1 and 6.2. Air is drawn into the
inlet of the engine when the hydraulic starter rotates the compressor during the starting cycle. After the
engine is started, air continues
174
Table IV. T62 Engine Leading Particulars.
175
Figure 6.1. T62T-2A Used on the CH-47.
176
Figure 6.2. T62T-16A Used on the CH-54.
177
to be drawn into the compressor by the power produced by the engine. The air is compressed and
directed into the combustor; fuel is introduced through six vaporizer tubes and is burned. During the
starting cycle, fuel from the start nozzle is ignited by a spark plug. When the APU reaches 90 percent
speed, a speed switch opens which closes the start fuel solenoid valve, shutting off fuel flow to the start
fuel nozzle. The hot expanding gas flows through a turbine nozzle and to the turbine assembly. Power
is extracted by the turbine rotor and is then transmitted to the reduction drive assembly.
6.4. PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR THE APU
The T62 is equipped with protective devices that shut the APU down if any of the operating
limitations are exceeded. If the oil pressure drops below approximately 6 psi, the low oil pressure switch
shuts off the fuel solenoid valve, which stops the flow of fuel to the engine. When this occurs the light
marked "Low Oil Press" will be illuminated on the instrument panel in the cockpit.
Overspeeding the APU is prevented by an overspeed switch, set at 110 percent. When this
limit is exceeded, the overspeed switch opens and shuts off the fuel flow to the engine. This causes the
overspeed (OVSP) light to illuminate on the instrument panel.
Hot starting of the APU is prevented by the high exhaust-temperature switch, which shuts
the engine off if the engine is too hot. Like the low oil pressure and overspeed switches, it stops the
fuel flow to the engine. When the operating temperature is exceeded, the high exhaust temperature
light, marked "HIGH EXH TEMP," in the cockpit will be illuminated.
If any of these conditions occur and the APU shuts down, the control switch in the cockpit
must be moved to the STOP position before attempting to restart the engine.
6.5. REDUCTION DRIVE AND ACCESSORY DRIVE ASSEMBLIES
The major difference between the T62T-2A and the T62T-16A is the accessory drive
housing. A comparison can be made by looking at item 31 in figures 6.3 and 6.4. Reduction of high
engine rpm is accomplished by using a single stage planetary gear reduction. Three fixed-center
planetary gears are driven by the externally splined pinion of the rotor shaft, item 7. An internally
splined ring gear transmits the drive from the planetary gears to the output shaft. External gear teeth on
the output portion of the shaft drive an upper intermediate gear and oil pump gear. The intermediate
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Figure 6.3. T62T-2A Cutaway Engine Assembly.
179
Figure 6.4. T62T-16A Cutaway Engine Assembly.
180
gear drives the accessory section. The accessory drive assembly consists of accessory gears and the
intermediate gear. These gears drive the hydraulic starter, the fuel control, and a speed switch and
tachometer generator.
6.6. COMBUSTOR ASSEMBLY
The annular combustor assembly consists of a housing, liner, and nozzle shield, items 15
through 17 in figure 6.3. The assembly is secured to the turbine housing by a V-clamp, item 19 in the
figure. Six self-tapping screws support and center the liner in the housing. Fuel for the combustor is
supplied by six equally spaced fuel vaporizers connected by a circular manifold on the combustor
housing. A combustion chamber drain valve is installed at the 6 o'clock position on the combustion
housing.
6.7. TURBINE ASSEMBLY
The turbine assembly consists of the rotor, air inlet, diffuser, and nozzle assemblies. These
items are shown in the airflow diagram in figure 6.5.
Figure 6.5. Airflow Diagram.
The centrifugal compressor rotor and radial inflow turbine rotor are bolted to the aft end of
the rotor shaft. A single forward ball bearing and an aft roller bearing support the shaft. These are
items 8 and 9 in figure 6.3 and 6.4. The air inlet assembly serves
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as a structural support between the combustor assembly and the reduction drive. The cylindrical,
contoured casting is open at both ends and is equipped with a wire mesh screen to cover the intake duct.
Intake air passes through the inlet assembly and into the impeller. The air then passes through the
diffuser to the combustion section where it flows between the outer walls of the housing and
combustion liner. At the end of the liner, the flow reverses direction and enters the combustion
chamber. After combustion, the gas exits at the forward end of the combustion liner through a nozzle
and the turbine wheel.
6.8. FUEL SYSTEM
The T62T-2A and T62T-16A have identical fuel systems. The fuel system is illustrated in
figure 6.6. The system consists of an inlet filter, fuel control, six main fuel injectors, a start fuel nozzle,
main and start fuel solenoid valve, a fuel pressure switch, and the necessary plumbing. Fuel for the
APU is supplied from the same source that supplies the engines.
6.9. FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION
The accessory drive gear drives both the fuel pump and the acceleration control assembly to
deliver fuel to the engine at approximately 300 psi. Fuel is directed through the inlet filter, in the fuel
pump, through the outlet filter with the fuel pump, and into the governor housing. A relief valve
installed in the governor housing bypasses excess fuel from the pump outlet to the pump inlet.
During engine starting, fuel is forced through internal passages to the fuel pressure switch.
Normally closed, the fuel pressure switch opens on increasing fuel pressure at 100 to 120 psi. When
open it actuates the start fuel solenoid valve and the main fuel solenoid valve to the open position, and
completes the ignition circuit. Combustion takes place in the combustor when atomized fuel from the
start fuel nozzle is ignited by the spark plug.
At 90 percent speed, fuel flow to the start fuel nozzle is cut off. The main fuel injectors
continue to supply fuel to the combustor. Fuel flow to the main fuel injectors is increased in direct
proportion to increasing air pressure, thus eliminating the possibility of over temperature or compressor
surge during acceleration.
182
Figure 6.6. Fuel Control Schematic.
183
Ambient air pressure varies inversely with altitude. The altitude compensator has an aneroid
bellows assembly that reacts to changes in ambient air pressure. It thereby reduces fuel flow to the fuel
injectors during acceleration if the engine is operated above sea level, up to a maximum altitude of
15,000 feet.
A minimum fuel flow needle, installed in the fuel passage that bypasses the governor, allows
a small amount of fuel under pump pressure to flow to the fuel injectors when fuel flow is reduced by
the governor. The engine speed is controlled throughout the operating range of 100 to 102 or 105
percent rpm by the flyweight assembly, in the governor housing.
The combustor drain valve is mounted on the bottom of the combustor housing. This valve
drains unburned fuel from the combustor during engine shutdown after a false or aborted start.
6.10. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Figure 6.7 shows a schematic of the lubrication system. The pump draws oil out of the sump
through an oil passage and into the housing. Oil under pump pressure enters the bottom of the filter
housing, passes through the filter element, and flows out of the housing through a passage in the filter
cap. A relief valve in the filter assembly opens at a differential pressure of 15-to 25 psi. This allows oil
to flow from outside the filter element, through a passage in the filter element cap, to the filter outlet
passage. If the filter element becomes clogged, this valve will open and allow oil to bypass the filter.
From the filter, oil is forced into a passage to the pressure relief valve and to four oil jets.
The oil jet ring which encircles the high speed input pinion contains three of these jets, and sprays oil to
the points where the high speed input pinion meshes with the three planetary gears. One jet directs a
spray between the end of the output shaft and the high speed pinion to create a mist to lubricate the
rotor shaft bearings. The remaining gears and bearings are lubricated by air-oil mist created when oil
strikes the planetary gears and high speed pinion.
System pressure is maintained at 15 to 25 psi by a pressure relief valve. The valve regulates
pressure by bypassing excessive pressure directly into the reduction drive housing. The bypassed oil
strikes the inside surface of the air inlet housing, thus aiding in cooling the oil. Bypassed oil returns to
the sump by gravity flow through an opening in the bottom of the planetary gear carrier.
184
Figure 6.7. Lubrication System Schematic.
185
The low oil pressure switch, normally open, closes on increasing oil pressure to 5 to 7 psi.
When the switch contacts close, the low oil-pressure circuit is deenergized. At rated engine speed, a
drop in oil pressure below 5-7 psi opens the low oil-pressure switch contacts, and, through electrical
circuitry, closes the main fuel solenoid valve and shuts down the engine.
6.11. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Circuitry for ignition and engine electrical accessories is included in the electrical system.
The system includes the ignition exciter, spark plug, speed switch, tachometer generator, thermocouple,
and hour meter. The engine harness-assembly connectors mate with receptacles on the junction box, oil
pressure switch, ignition exciter, speed switch, and tachometer-generator. Descriptions of the
components in the electrical system are given in the following subparagraphs.
a. Ignition exciter. The input voltage to the ignition exciter is 10 to 29v dc. Input voltage
is converted to an intermittent high-energy current which is directed to the spark plug for ignition.
Minimum spark rate is two per second at 14 volts.
b. Spark plug. The shunted surface-gap type spark plug is threaded into a boss in the end
of the combustor. The plug furnishes the spark necessary for initial ignition of fuel during the starting
cycle. Ignition is terminated by the No. 1 switch in the speed switch when the engine attains 90 percent
rated speed.
c. Speed switch. Mounted on the rear accessory drive pad in tandem with the tachometer
is the speed switch. Inside the switch housing, two flyweights are mounted to the speed switch drive
shaft. The flyweights move an actuating plate held in position by two springs of unequal strength. The
speed switch is two switches in one housing. The No. 1 switch is set at 90 percent rated speed, and the
No. 2 switch is set at 110 percent rated speed. As rpm is increased, the force of the lighter and then the
heavier spring is overcome, allowing the actuating plate to actuate the No. 1 switch (90 percent speed).
When the No. 1 switch is actuated, the start fuel and ignition systems are shut off. When the No. 2
switch is actuated at 110 percent speed, the main fuel solenoid valve is closed, and this shuts off fuel to
the engine.
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d. Turbine exhaust thermal switch. A thermocouple projects into the exhaust gas stream
at the aft end of the combustor. If an over temperature occurs, the contacts normally closed in the
turbine exhaust thermal switch will open, close the main fuel solenoid valve, and shut the engine down.
e. Tachometer generator. The APU tachometer generator is mounted in tandem with the
speed switch on the accessory drive assembly. A synchronous rotor in the tachometer generator
produces three-phase ac voltage proportional to the speed at which the rotor is turning. This voltage is
transmitted to a tachometer indicator in the cockpit which indicates the engine speed in percent of rated
rpm.
f. Hour meter. Engine operating time is recorded by the hour meter attached to the
engine. The meter operates on 24v dc supplied by the aircraft bus.
6.12. SUMMARY
The T62 is used on the CH-47 and CH-54 helicopters as an auxiliary power unit. The engine
consists of a combustor, turbine, and reduction and accessory drive assemblies. Both the compressor
and turbine rotor are mounted on the same shaft. A fuel control, hydraulic starter motor, and ignition
unit are mounted on the engine. Operating time for the APU is maintained separately from the aircraft
engine time by an hour meter mounted on the APU.
The T62 is equipped with protective devices that shut the APU down if any of the operating
limitations are exceeded. If the oil pressure, rpm, or exhaust temperature limits are exceeded, a light on
the instrument panel will be illuminated and the APU shut down.
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Chapter 7
ALLISON T63
7.1. INTRODUCTION
The T63 series turboshaft engine is manufactured by the Allison Division of General Motors
Corporation. The T63-A-5A is used to power the OH-6A, and the T63-A-700 is in the OH-58A light
observation helicopter.
Although the engine dash numbers are not the same for each of these, the engines are
basically the same. As shown in figure 7.1, the engine consists of four major components: the
compressor, accessory gearbox, combustor, and turbine sections. This chapter explains the major
sections and related systems.
7.2. OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION
The T63 turboshaft engine, being an internal combustion engine, requires intake,
compression, combustion, and exhaust, as does a reciprocating engine.
Figure 7.2 is a cutaway view of the T63 engine. By looking at the letters in the arrows in
figure 7.2, you will be able to follow the air's path through the engine.
Air is routed to the compressor assembly by intake ducts on the aircraft. The (A)
compressor assembly "squeezes" incoming air to high pressures. This compressed air is discharged
through twin air-transfer tubes (B) into the combustion chamber (C) and mixed with fuel which is then
burned. The exhaust gases expand through the compressor turbine (D) which extracts energy from
these hot gases to drive the compressor (A). The power turbine (E) takes the remaining energy to drive
the power-output shaft (F). The gases are then released through exhaust ducts (G).
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Figure 7.1. Sections of the T63 Engine.
189
Figure 7.2. Airflow Diagram.
7.3. ALLISON T63 SPECIFICATIONS
Specifications for the T63-A-5A and 700 engines used in Army aircraft are summarized in
the following chart.
190
7.4. COMPRESSOR SECTION
The compressor assembly consists of the following: compressor front support, compressor
case, diffuser scroll, front diffuser, rear diffuser, rotor, rotor bearing, and oil seals. An exploded view of
the compressor assembly is shown in figure 7.3.
The compressor is a combination axial-centrifugal type with six stages of axial compression
and one stage of centrifugal compression. The rotor hub and blade assemblies and the impeller are
made from stainless steel. The compressor rotor front bearing (No. 1) is housed in the compressor front
support, and the compressor rotor rear (No. 2) bearing is housed in the compressor rear diffuser. The
No. 2 bearing is the thrust bearing for the compressor rotor assembly.
The compressor case assembly consists of upper and lower halves and is made of stainless
steel. Thermal-setting plastic is centrifugally cast to the inside surface of the case halves and vane outer
bands.
To achieve maximum compressor efficiency, a minimum clearance is necessary between the
compressor-blade tips and the case. The first time an engine is started, the blade tips cut their own tip
clearance in the plastic coating. The inside of the compressor must be kept free of dirt accumulation. A
dirty compressor can cause high turbine outlet temperatures, low engine power, and
191
Figure 7.3. Compressor Assembly.
192
eventual engine failure. Engine cleaning procedures can be found in the appropriate aircraft or engine
maintenance manual. The compressor of the T63 must never be cleaned with an ordinary cleaning
solvent, because this will dissolve the plastic coating on the inside of the compressor case and cause
engine failure.
A control valve is mounted on the compressor case assembly to bleed air off the 5th stage of
the compressor during starting and all engine operations at low pressure ratios.
The compressor diffuser assembly consists of stainless steel front and rear diffusers and a
magnesium alloy scroll. The scroll collects the air and delivers it to two elbows. Compressor-discharge
air tubes deliver compressed air from the outlet of the elbows to the combustion outer case. The
diffuser scroll has five ports from which air can be bled or compressor discharge air pressure sensed.
Two of these ports are customer bleed air ports, and the remaining ports are used by the anti-icing valve,
fuel control pressure sensing, and bleed air pressure sensing. Customer air ports are used by the airframe
manufacturer to tap bleed air to run pumps, heaters, and so forth.
7.5. ACCESSORY GEARBOX SECTION
Shown in figure 7.4, the accessory gearbox is the primary structural member of the engine.
All engine components, including
Figure 7.4. Accessory Gearbox Case.
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the engine mounted accessories, are attached to the case, which has four mounting pads, one on each
side, one on the top, and one on the bottom. The side pads must be used, and the helicopter
manufacturer has his choice of using the top and bottom pads. The accessory gearbox contains most of
the lubrication system components and houses the power turbine and gas producer gear trains. The
power turbine gear train, shown in figure 7.5, reduces engine N2 speed from 35,000 to 6,000 rpm. The
power turbine gear train drives the torquemeter, N2 tachometer-generator, and N2 governor. The gas
producer gear train, illustrated in figure 7.6, drives the oil pumps, fuel pump, gas producer fuel control,
N1 tachometer generator, and starter-generator. During starting, the starter-generator cranks the engine
through the gas producer gear train.
7.6. TURBINE SECTION
As shown in figure 7.1, the turbine section is mounted between the combustion section and
the power and accessory gearbox. The turbine section consists of a two-stage gas producer turbine,
shown in figure 7.7, and a two-stage power turbine, shown in figure 7.8. Power to drive the compressor
rotor is furnished by the gas producer turbine rotor through a direct drive. The power turbine rotor
converts the remaining gas energy into power which drives the power output shaft. The exhaust gases
are directed into the exhaust collector support and through the twin exhaust ducts on the top of engine.
The power turbine is a free turbine, because it is free to rotate at a different speed than the
gas producer turbine rotors.
The gas producer turbine nozzles (1st and 2nd) are housed in the gas producer turbine
support. The power turbine (3rd and 4th stage) nozzles are housed in the power turbine support and the
aft end of the exhaust collector support. These nozzles may be seen by looking at figures 7.7 and 7.8.
These nozzles increase the velocity of the expanding gas and direct the gas at the proper angle onto the
turbine rotors.
7.7. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The oil system is a circulating dry-sump type with an external oil tank and cooler. The
engine oil-system schematic is illustrated in figure 7.9. This system is designed to supply oil for
lubrication, scavenging, and cooling as needed.
194
Figure 7.5. Power Turbine Gear Train.
195
Figure 7.6. Gas Producer Gear Train.
196
Figure 7.7. Gas Producer Turbine Assembly.
197
Figure 7.8. Power Turbine Assembly.
198
Figure 7.9. Engine Lubrication Schematic.
199
Spray jet lubrication is used on all compressor, gas producer turbine, and power turbine rotor
bearings, and to bearings and gear meshes of the power turbine gear train, with the exception of the
power output shaft bearings. The power output shaft bearings and all other gears and bearings are
lubricated by oil mist.
A spur-gear oil pump assembly, illustrated in figure 7.10, consisting of one pressure element
and four scavenge elements, is mounted within the accessory gearbox.
Figure 7.10. Oil Pump.
The oil filter assembly, located in the upper right-hand side of the accessory gearbox, consists
of a filter bypass valve and a pressure regulating valve. Oil from the tank is delivered to the pressure
pump which pumps oil through the filter and then to the points of lubrication. The oil pressure is
regulated 115-130 psi by the pressure regulating valve.
The engine lubrication system incorporates four screens, two magnetic chip detector plugs,
and two check valves. The check valve in the oil filter outlet passage prevents oil in the tank from
draining into the engine when it is not in operation.
200
To further prevent internal oil leakage at engine shutdown, an external sump is connected to
the scavenge oil line at the power turbine support. One magnetic chip detector plug is in the accessory
gearbox sump, and the other one is in the scavenge oil pressure line which delivers oil to the oil outlet
port on the gearbox.
7.8. TORQUEMETER
A torquemeter is located on the instrument panel and is connected to a transmitter which is
part of the engine oil system. The torque indicating system converts the pressure sensed at the
torquemeter pressure port, on the front side of the accessory gearbox, into an indication in psi of engine
torque output.
7.9. FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
The fuel control system meters fuel during starting, acceleration, constant speed, and
deceleration. This control system consists of governor, accumulator and check valve, and fuel nozzle.
These components are illustrated in figure 7.11. The following subparagraphs cover each component in
the fuel system.
a. The fuel pump assembly consists of two spur-gear pumps, filter, filter bypass valve,
regulator valve, and two discharge check valves. As shown in figure 7.12, the fuel pumps are parallel,
that is, fuel entering the inlet port can be pumped by either pump to the outlet port. Each pump has a
separate shear point. In the event of a pump failure, the discharge check valve of the failed pump closes
to prevent reverse flow through the pump. Failure of one pump will not affect engine operation.
b. The fuel control (N1) is located at the 3 o'clock position on the accessory gearbox case.
The fuel control delivers metered fuel (P2 in figure 7.11) to the fuel nozzle. The gas producer fuel
control, driven by the N1 gear train, senses compressor discharge pressure (PC). The N1 fuel control lever,
positioned by the twist grip throttle, is mechanically linked to a pointer and the fuel cutoff valve. A
quadrant, shown in figure 7.13, with 0, 5, 30, and 90 degree indications is located adjacent to the pointer.
The pilot's twist grip throttle has three basic positions: cutoff is 00 to 50; ground idle is at 300, and full
open at 900. When the twist grip is moved from cutoff to ground idle during engine start, the fuel
control automatically meters fuel in response to N1 rpm. The engine starts, accelerates, and stabilizes at
ground idle rpm. Fuel flow during this phase is metered entirely by the fuel control.
201
Figure 7.11. Fuel Control System.
202
Figure 7.12. Fuel Pump and Filter Assembly.
c. The power-turbine governor (N2) is not required for starting or ground idle operation,
but it is required for speed governing of the power turbine rotor. The gas-producer fuel control and the
power-turbine governor are connected together by two pneumatic lines, labeled PG and PR in figure 7.11.
The power-turbine governor, driven by the power-turbine gear train, senses compressor discharge
pressure (PC). The power-turbine governor lever, as shown in figure 7.14, is positioned by the helicopter
droop compensator or the N2 actuator. The power-turbine governor is required for speed governing of
the power turbine rotor (N2). The N2 rpm at which the power-turbine governor will govern is under the
control of the N2 actuator. Normally, the power-turbine governor is operated at 100 percent N2.
However, the pilot can select a setting of the governor either higher or lower than 100 percent N2.
203
Figure 7.13. Fuel Control System.
The droop compensator moves the governor Lever any time the pilot's collective stick is
increased or decreased. This is necessary to maintain the N2 rpm the pilot has set with the N2 actuator.
When collective pitch is increased, the power requirements are increased, and N2 rpm droops slightly.
The governor senses the N2 droop and it signals the gas-producer fuel control to meter more fuel. As
fuel flow increases, N2 returns to the setting of the power-turbine governor. When collective pitch is
decreased, the power requirements are decreased, and N2 increases slightly. The governor senses the N2
increase and signals the fuel control to meter less fuel. As fuel flow decreases, the N2 decreases to the
setting of the power-turbine governor.
204
Figure 7.14. Power Turbine Governor Control System.
205
d. The check valve assembly and accumulator are installed to dampen torsional vibrations
encountered in helicopter rotor systems. Because of wind gusts and turbulent air conditions, the rotor
rpm will fluctuate slightly. The power turbine governor senses this rpm change and causes the fuel
control to vary fuel flow. By installing an accumulator and damping out the governing pressure (PG) to
the gas producer fuel control, the design prevents the engine from responding to torsional vibrations.
e. The fuel nozzle is a single-entry, dual-orifice type nozzle. It threads into the combustor
outer case and extends into the aft end of the combustor liner. The fuel control delivers fuel to the
nozzle which atomizes and injects fuel into the combustion chamber, where it is mixed with air and
burned.
The fuel nozzle must properly atomize and inject the fuel in all ranges of fuel flow
from starting to maximum power. This is accomplished by means of a dual-orifice design. The primary
orifice has fuel delivered to it whenever the engine is operating, but the secondary orifice receives fuel
only when the fuel pressure to the fuel nozzle exceeds 150 psi.
7.10. AIR BLEED AND ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS
The compressor air bleed system permits rapid engine response by relieving compressor
pressure during engine acceleration. A bleed air control valve is mounted to the bleed air manifold on
the compressor case. The compressor bleed air and anti-icing systems are illustrated in figure 7.15.
Elongated slots between every other vane at the compressor fifth stage bleed compressor air
into a manifold on the compressor case. The air bleed control valve is open during starting and groundidle
operation, and it remains open until a predetermined pressure ratio is obtained, at which time the
valve begins to move from the open to the closed position.
The engine is equipped with an anti-icing system that conducts hot air to the compressor
front-support struts to prevent ice forming on the struts. The system is entirely separate and
independent of any other bleed air system. The engine anti-icing system must be turned on by the pilot.
As air passes through the compressor, it is compressed. As a result of this compression, the air is heated
and is a source of hot air required by the engine anti-icing system.
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Figure 7.15. Air Bleed and Anti-Icing System.
The anti-icing system consists of an anti-icing valve, two tubes, and passages within the
compressor front support. During operation of the system, the anti-icing tubes deliver hot air from the
anti-icing valve to the two ports on the compressor front support. These ports deliver the hot air into an
annular passage formed between the dual-walled housing. Hot air flows from the annular passage
through the hollow inlet guide vanes into the front bearing support hub. Some of the air flowing
through the struts is exhausted out of slots on the trailing edge of the guide vanes, and the remaining air
is exhausted out of holes in the front bearing support hub. During anti-icing operation, all surfaces of
the compressor front support which come in contact with compressor inlet air are heated and ice cannot
form.
7.11. IGNITION AND TURBINE OUTLET TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS
The ignition system is composed of three components: a low-tension capacitor exciterassembly,
a spark igniter lead, and a
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shunted surface gap spark igniter. The system is powered by the aircraft 28-volt dc electrical system.
This ignition system is only required during starting, because continuous combustion takes place after the
engine is started. Components of the ignition and turbine outlet temperature (TOT) systems are
illustrated in figure 7.16.
The TOT thermocouple harness contains four probes used to sense the temperature of the
gases on the outlet side of the gas-producer turbine rotor. Each thermocouple probe generates a dc
millivoltage which is directly proportional to the gas temperature it senses. The thermocouple harness
averages the four voltages produced and indicates TOT on a gage in the cockpit.
7.12. SUMMARY
The Allison T63 is a free-power gas turbine engine which has four major sections: the
compressor assembly, power and accessory gearbox, turbine assembly, and combustion assembly. The
power-turbine governor senses power turbine speed and relays this to the fuel control that controls the
compressor speed. The fuel control sends fuel to the nozzle located in the combustion section, and the
nozzle sprays fuel into the combustion liner.
The engine is lubricated by a dry-sump pressure system. Ignition for engine starting comes
from an ignition exciter and spark igniter located next to the fuel nozzle in the engine combustion
section.
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Figure 7.16. Electrical Components.
209
Chapter 8
PRATT AND WHITNEY T73
8.1. INTRODUCTION
The Pratt and Whitney T73-P-1 and T73-P-700 are the most powerful engines used in Army
aircraft. Two of these engines are used to power the CH-54 flying crane helicopter. The T73 design
differs in two ways from any of the engines covered previously. The airflow is axial through the engine;
it does not make any reversing turns as the airflow of the previous engines did, and the power output
shaft extends from the exhaust end.
Chapter 8 describes and discusses the engine sections and systems. Constant reference to the
illustrations in this chapter will help you understand the discussion.
8.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The T73-P-1 and the T73-P-700 engines are straight-flow, free-turbine power plants using a
two-stage turbine to drive a nine-stage, axial-flow compressor. The free turbine uses the exhaust gas to
drive a two-stage free turbine rotor. External views of the T73 gas turbine engine are shown in figure
8.1. A cross-sectional view is shown in figure 8.2.
The axial flow compressor consists of a nine-stage rotor and nine stator stages. The gas path
of the compressor is so designed that it forms a convergent duct. The compressor has a moderate
compression ratio.
An automatically-controlled interstage airbleed is used for starting and low power operation of
the engine. The engine's anti-icing system prevents dangerous accumulations of ice on compressor-inlet
surfaces by directing compressor-discharge air into the hollow compressor inlet guide vanes.
To the rear of the compressor is the diffuser section which reduces air velocity and increases
air pressure for entry into the combustion chambers.
The combustion section houses the canannular combustion chambers and the fuel.
manifolds. The eight separate combustion chambers, arranged annularly, are connected by flame tubes.
210
Figure 8-1. T73-P-700 Gas Turbine Engine.
211
Figure 8.2. Cross-Section View of T73-P-700.
212
Igniter plugs are installed in number three and six combustion chambers. Right and left, clockwise and
counterclockwise, upper and lower, and similar directional references apply to the engine as viewed from
the rear, with the accessory section at the bottom. Table V gives the leading particulars for the T73-P-
700 and T73-P-1 engines.
Figure 8.3. Compressor Inlet Case.
8.3. COMPRESSOR SECTION
The compressor inlet case, illustrated
in figure 8.3, consists of the outer and inner inlet
cases, outer and inner inlet vane shrouds, and
hollow inlet vanes. Bosses and pads are located
on the outer case for the No. 1 bearing
compartment breather, scavenge, and pressure
connections, inlet air pressure and temperature
sensing connections, and anti-icing a air-icing air
ports. The No. 1 bearing housing is bolted to the
inner-inlet-case rear flange.
The compressor inlet case houses the first four compressor rotor and compressor vane and
shroud stages. Ports in the rear of the case allow bleed air to be discharged overboard by a bleed band
assembly to aid engine starting and acceleration.
The compressor rotor, shown in figure 8.4, consists of a forward hub assembly, a nine-stage
compressor rotor, and an aft hub assembly. The No. 1 bearing is installed on the forward hub assembly
of the compressor rotor shaft.
The first stage compressor blades are
attached directly to the forward hub while all
other stages of compressor blades are attached to
individual disks. The blades of the first and
second stages are pin mounted to allow the blades
to flex. Stages three through nine have a single
dovetail and are secured in broached slots in the
disk by expend able blade locks.
Figure 8.4. Compressor Rotor.
213
TABLE V. LEADING ENGINE PARTICULARS
214
The diffuser case, illustrated in figure 8.5, is a welded steel assembly located between the
compressor inlet case and the combustion chamber case. It consists of an inner and outer case and 8
Figure 8.5. Diffuser Case.
hollow struts. It houses stages 5 through 9 of the
compressor rotor shroud and vane assembly, the
9th stage exit guide vanes, and No. 2 main
bearing and seal.
The diffuser assembly reduces air
velocity and increases air pressure for entry into
the combustion chambers. High pressure air
from this case is bled off for anti-icing, fuel
heating, and bearing pressurizing.
On the outer case at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions are the engine mount pads. At the bottom
of the case are bosses for installing the gearbox and the fuel-pressurizing dump valve.
8.4. COMBUSTION SECTION
The combustion chamber case is bolted between the diffuser case and the free turbine case.
This combustion chamber outer case, shown in figure 8.6, forms the outer rigid support member of the
engine and must be removed for completing a hot
section inspection. Located within the
combustion outer case are eight combustion
chambers (cans), the combustion inner case, fuel
manifolds, and the combustion chamber outlet
duct. The combustion chambers are attached by
clamps to the combustion chamber outlet duct in
the aft end of the combustion chamber case.
Flame tubes interconnect all combustion
chambers. Chambers three and six have igniter
plug cutouts. Each combustion chamber,
illustrated in
Figure 8.6. Combustion Chamber Case.
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figure 8.7, consists of six liners, a fuel nozzle cap, a fuel nozzle cup adapter, and male or female flame
tubes.
Figure 8.7. Combustion Chamber.
Figure 8.8. Combustion Chamber Outlet Duct
and Combustor (Can) Positions.
The combustion chamber outlet duct,
shown in figure 8.8, acts as a transition area to
combine the gas flow from the eight combustion
chambers and introduce it into the first stage
nozzle vanes.
The fuel manifold consists of a
secondary manifold within the primary manifold.
Eight duplex fuel nozzles, one for each
combustion chamber, are placed around the fuel
manifold. Each nozzle has a primary orifice and
a secondary orifice. Fuel sprays from the primary
orifice during low pressure and from both orifices
at high pressure. Fuel strainers in the primary
and
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secondary passages of each nozzle prevent foreign matter from clogging the orifices. A fuel drain valve,
at the bottom of the combustion case, automatically drains the combustion section after engine
shutdown in the event of a false or aborted start.
8.5. GAS PRODUCER TURBINE SECTION
The gas producer turbine rotor assembly, illustrated in figure 8.9, consists of the turbine shaft
and the first and second stage disks and blades. The turbine disks are attached to the turbine shaft hub
Figure 8.9. Gas Producer Turbine Rotor.
with bolts and are separated from each other by
the turbine rotor inner seal. The first and second
stage turbine blades are shrouded. The shrouds
form a continuous band which tends to reduce
blade vibration, improve the airflow
characteristics, and increase the efficiency of the
turbine. The first and second stage turbine blades
are placed in the fir-tree serrations of the disks
and are held in place with rivets.
The turbine rotor is supported by the No. 3 bearing and by the splined end of the compressor
rear hub. Installed on the turbine shaft is the No. 3 bearing seal assembly.
8.6. POWER TURBINE SECTION
The free-power turbine is a two-stage axial-flow turbine. The turbine inlet case, item 25,
figure 8.2, is mounted on the rear flange of the gas producer turbine case. The power-turbine rotor turns
counterclockwise while the gas producer rotor turns clockwise. The power turbine rotor assembly, items
16 and 18 in figure 8.2, consists of the turbine shaft, first and second stage disk and blades, turbine
coupling, and accessory drive gear. Tiebolts attach the disk and blade assemblies to the front end of the
turbine shaft. The shaft is supported at the rear by the No. 5 bearing and at the forward end by the No.
4 bearing.
The free-turbine inlet case houses the turbine inlet duct, the first and second stage vanes, and
the free-stage turbine rotor.
The free-turbine case, item 24, figure 8.2, is mounted to the rear flange of the free turbine
inlet case. The turbine case consists
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of the free-turbine outer case, inner front and rear case, four hollow struts and their Outer shrouds,
twelve exhaust struts, and the No. 4 bearing housing. Housed in the case are the free-power turbine
second-stage rotor, No. 4 bearing oil nozzle, and free turbine accessory drive gear and shaft assembly,
item 20 in figure 8.2.
8.7. TURBINE EXHAUST DUCT
The free-turbine shaft and shaft cases are housed in the exhaust duct. The exhaust duct
assembly consists of inner and outer assemblies, stiffeners, exhaust duct ring, and front and rear flanges.
The exhaust duct bolts to the free-turbine case rear flange.
8.8. MAIN BEARINGS
All references to main bearings in this chapter are made by bearing number rather than by
bearing nomenclature. Here are the bearing numbers with their corresponding nomenclatures and types.
8.9. ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
The T-73 is equipped with a single-element, centrifugal-boost fuel pump. The pump is
mounted on and driven by the component-drive gearbox. On the rear of the pump is a mounting pad
for the engine fuel control. The fuel boost pump raises the fuel pressure by approximately 20 psi. Fuel
then passes through an externally mounted fuel de-icing heater. From the de-icing heater, fuel returns to
the pumps at the inlet fuel filter and is directed to the main pumping element. The main pumping
element raises the pressure to approximately 800 psi, and fuel passes out of the pump to the engine fuel
control.
The fuel control is a hydromechanical control designed to meter fuel to the engine. The
control has a fuel metering system and a computing system. The metering system, subject to engine
operating limitations, selects the rate of fuel flow supplied to the
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engine in accordance with the amount of power requested. The computing system allows the maximum
engine performance available without exceeding operating limits. The fuel then flows through tubing to
the right and left fuel manifolds and the eight fuel nozzles in the combustors.
8.10. INTERNAL COOLING AND PRESSURIZATION
Ninth stage air passes through holes in the compressor rotor rear hub, down through the
inside of the rotor, and out through holes in the front hub. This air is used to pressurize the main
bearing seals and to cool hot parts of the engine.
8.11. INLET GUIDE VANE ANTI-ICING SYSTEM
To prevent icing of the compressor inlet surfaces, an anti-icing air system is installed in the
engine. Compressor bleed air is carried forward to the inlet case by an external tube on the left side of
the engine. Air flow through this tube is controlled by a solenoid-operated valve. When icing
conditions are encountered, the anti-ice switch in the cockpit is turned on to deenergize the solenoid
which allows the valve to open and hot anti-icing air to pass forward.
Anti-icing air enters the compressor inlet outer case through the anti-icing air boss and into
the cavity formed by the compressor-inlet outer case and the IGV outer, shroud. The air then passes
through the hollow inlet-vanes and through openings in the inner shroud to the bullet nose cone.
The air passes through the bullet nose cone and is ejected out through louvers into the airstream.
8.12. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The engine lubrication system is illustrated in figure 8.10. Oil from the tank is fed to the
inlet of the pressure section of the main oil pump. The pressure oil is then directed through the main
oil filter, through the fuel oil cooler if cooling is required, and to the bearings. The oil passes through
external tubing to the No. 1 and 2 bearing compartments. Oil to the No. 3 bearing compartment is
supplied by an internal tube that connects with No. 2 bearing supply. Pressure oil flows through an
external tube to the free turbine accessory drive gearbox. An internal line carries oil from this connector
to the No. 4 and 5 bearings. Pressure oil flow is maintained by metering orifices, thus providing a
relatively constant oil flow at
219
Figure 8.10. Engine Lubrication System.
220
all engine operating speeds. Oil pressure is controlled by the pressure relief valve. If the oil strainer
becomes clogged, a bypass valve opens permitting oil flow and allowing engine operation to continue.
Scavenge oil from the five main bearings and gearbox is scavenged by five of the six gear
stages in the main oil pump.
The first stage is a pressure pump. Stage two scavenges oil from No. 1 bearing; stage three
from No. 3 bearing; stage four from the gearbox and No. 2 bearing; stage five from No. 4 bearing; and
stage six from No. 5 bearing. The scavenge oil empties into a common tube that returns the oil to the
tank. An air-oil separator in the gearbox removes oil from the breather air. Return oil passes through a
de-aerator which removes most of the air. The oil tank contains baffles to prevent re-aeration of the oil
in the tank.
Each of the bearing compartments and the oil tank are vented to the components drive
gearbox. A rotary separator within the gearbox separates the majority of oil particles from the breather
air. This air then exits through the overboard breather connector on the upper right side of the gearbox.
8.13. TORQUE SENSOR
The torque sensor, the ignition system, and the power turbine inlet temperature indicating
system make up the engine electrical system.
The torque sensor consists of a torque shaft assembly, a three-pole magnetic torque sensor,
and a torquemeter. It produces a visual indication of power transmitted from the engine to the main
rotor gearbox by measuring the main drive shaft twist resulting from engine torque.
8.14. IGNITION SYSTEM
The ignition circuit is energized only during the starting cycle through operation of the starter
circuit. The ignition system components consists of two identical, four-joule ignition exciters, one for
each igniter plug. The ignition system operates satisfactorily with an input voltage of 14 to 30v dc.
Operation of this system is the same as described in chapter 2, paragraph 2.22.
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8.15. POWER TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM
This system consists of a dual-junction thermocouple cable and six thermocouples. Two
connectors are provided in the thermocouple cable illustrated in figure 8.11. One is for connecting to an
averaging indicator and the other is for individual checking of the thermocouples. This system functions
the same as the exhaust gas temperature-measuring system described in chapter 2.
Figure 8.11. Dual-Junction Thermocouple and Harness.
8.16. SUMMARY
The Pratt and Whitney T73-P-1 and the T73-P-700 are used to power the CH-54 flying crane
helicopter. This engine is a straight-flow, axial-compressor, free-turbine powerplant. The axial flow
compressor consists of nine stages. The combustion
222
section has eight separate combustion chambers. The compressor is driven by a two-stage turbine
mounted on the aft end of the compressor rotor shaft.
The power turbine section is also a two-stage turbine, which mounts on the front end of the
turbine shaft. The turbine shaft extends out the exhaust end of the engine.
The engine fuel system has a hydromechanical fuel control with a metering and computing
section that schedules fuel flow. Internal cooling and pressurization are maintained by compressor bleed
air. Compressor bleed air is also used to prevent ice from forming on the engine inlet surfaces. All
components of the lubrication system are mounted on the engine. The oil system is a dry-sump type.
The engine electrical system consists of the torque sensing system, ignition system, and
turbine inlet temperature system.
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Chapter 9
PRATT AND WHITNEY T74
9.1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses the Pratt and Whitney T74 gas turbine engine. It is a reverse-flow,
free-power turbine engine using a combination axial-centrifugal compressor assembly. The two models
of the T74 are the T74-CP-700 and the T74-CP-702. They are used on the U-21 aircraft. Information
in this chapter may be about either or both models.
Section I describes the engine operation, and section II discusses the major engine systems.
Figure 9.1 shows what the engine looks like; in this case, it is the -700 model.
Figure 9.1. T74-CP-700.
Section I. Operational Characteristics and Description
9.2. GENERAL
This section discusses the operational characteristics and gives a description of the T74
engine. However, because these engines are undergoing continuous improvements in design and
manufacture, the appearance of certain parts or details may change.
224
9.3. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
A cross-sectional view of the T74 showing the airflow through the engine is illustrated in
figure 9.2. Inlet air enters the engine through a circular chamber formed by the compressor inlet case
where it is directed to the compressor. The compressor consists of three axial stages combined with a
single centrifugal stage.
A row of stator vanes, located behind each rotating disk, diffuses the air, raises its static
pressure, and directs it to the next stage of compression. The compressed air passes through a diffuser,
turns ninety degrees in direction, and is then led through straightening vanes into the combustion
chamber liner.
Figure 9.2. Airflow.
225
The annular combustion chamber liner (ring shaped) has perforations which allow entry of
compressed air. The flow of air changes direction to enter the combustion chamber liner, where it
reverses direction and mixes with fuel. The location and shape of the combustion chamber liner
eliminates the need for a long shaft between the compressor and turbine, reducing the overall length and
weight of the engine.
Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber liner by fourteen simplex nozzles. The fuel-air
mixture is ignited by two glow plugs which protrude into the combustion chamber liner. The expanding
gas from the combustion chamber liner reverses direction and passes through the compressor turbine
guide vanes to the compressor turbine. The gases then pass forward through the turbine guide vanes to
drive the power turbine.
The compressor and power turbines, items 3 and 4 in figure 9.2, are located approximately in
the center of the engine with their shafts extending in opposite directions. The exhaust gas from the
power turbine is directed through an exhaust plenum to two exhaust ducts.
All engine-driven accessories, with the exception of the N2 tachometer-generator and propeller
governors, are mounted on the accessory gearbox and driven by the compressor. The oil tank is located
forward of the accessory gearbox and forms part of the compressor inlet case. The tank has a total oil
capacity of 2.3 gallons and has a dipstick and drain plug.
The power turbine drives a propeller through a two-stage planetary reduction gearbox located
at the front of the engine. The torquemeter is located in the reduction gearbox.
9.4. STATIONS, FLANGES, AND SPECIFICATIONS
The engine stations and flanges are illustrated in figure 9.3. Stations, identified by numbers
in the figure, are specific locations in the engine. Flanges, identified by letters in the figure, are rims or
edges providing strength in the attachment of one engine section to another.
226
Figure 9.3. Stations and Flange Locations, -700.
227
Specifications for the T74-CP-702 engines used in Army aircraft are summarized in the
following chart.
9.5. INLET AND COMPRESSOR SECTIONS
The following subparagraphs discuss the inlet and compressor sections. An exploded view of
the T74-CP-702 engine is shown in figure 9. 4.
a. The compressor inlet case, shown in figure 9.5, consists of a circular aluminum-alloy
casting; the front forms a plenum chamber for the passage of compressor inlet air. The rear portion,
which consists of a hollow compartment, is used to house the oil supply. A large circular steel screen
(item 11 in figure 9.4) is bolted around the air intake and the rear of the gas generator case to prevent
foreign object ingestion by the compressor.
228
Figure 9.4. Exploded View of the T74-CP-702.
229
Figure 9.5. Compressor Inlet Case, -700 Engine.
The No. 1 bearing support is contained within the compressor inlet case centerbore. A
conical tube is fitted in the centerbore of the oil tank compartment to provide a passage for the coupling
shaft which extends the compressor drive to the accessories mounted on the rear accessory case. The
pressure oil pump, driven by an accessory drive gear, is located in the bottom of the oil tank. The
pressure oil relief valve and main oil filter, with check valve and bypass valve assemblies; are located on
the right side of the inlet case at the 1 and 3 o'clock positions, respectively.
b. The compressor rotor and stator assembly, shown in figure 9.6, consists of a three-stage
axial rotor, three interstage spacers, three stator assemblies, and a single-stage centrifugal impeller and
housing. The compressor blades are made of stainless steel and attached, with limited clearance, to the
compressor hub in dovetail grooves. This accounts for the metallic clicking heard during compressor
run-down. Axial movement of compressor blades is limited by the interstage spacers located between
the disks. The first stage compressor blade airfoil differs from those in the second and third stages
which are identical. All three stages differ in
230
Figure 9.6. Compressor Assembly, -700.
231
length, decreasing from the first to the third stage. The No. 1 bearing is a ball bearing and supports the
rear of the compressor assembly in the inlet case. The No. 2 bearing is a roller bearing and supports the
front of the compressor and gas generator turbine.
c. The gas generator case is attached to the front flange of the compressor inlet case and
consists of two stainless steel sections made into a single structure. The rear inner section supports the
compressor assembly. The compressor bleed valve outlet port is located at the seven o'clock position
forward of the inlet screen. The No. 2 bearing support is located in the centerbore of the case. The
diffuser pipes or vanes brazed inside the center section of the gas generator case create a pressure
increase in the compressor air as it leaves the centrifugal impeller. The compressed air is then directed
through straightening vanes, located at the outlet of the diffuser, and out to the combustion chamber
liner.
The front section of the gas generator case forms the outer housing for the combustion
chamber liner. It consists of a circular stainless steel structure for mounting the 14 fuel nozzle
assemblies and the manifold. Front and rear drain valves are mounted at the 6 o'clock position to allow
residual fuel to drain overboard during engine shutdown after a false or aborted start. Two glow plugs
protrude into the combustion chamber liner to ignite the fuel-air mixture. The engine is mounted on
three flexible type mounts which are secured to mounting pads located on the outer circumference of
the gas generator case.
9.6. COMBUSTION CHAMBER LINER
Located in the front section of the gas generator case is the combustion chamber liner. The
liner is of the reverse flow type and consists primarily of an annular, heat-resistant steel liner open at one
end. The combustion chamber is illustrated in figure 9.7.
The liner has perforations which allow air to enter the liner for combustion. The
perforations insure an even temperature distribution at the compressor turbine inlet. The domed front
end of the liner is supported inside the gas generator case by seven of the 14 fuel nozzles. The rear of
the liner is supported by sliding joints which fit to the inner and outer exit duct assemblies.
232
Figure 9.7. Combustion Chamber and Turbine Section, -702.
233
The exit duct forms an envelope which changes the direction of the gas flow by providing an
outlet close to the compressor turbine guide vanes. The vanes ensure that the expanding gases are
directed to the compressor turbine blades at the proper angle to drive the compressor.
9.7. TURBINE SECTION
The turbine rotor consists of two separate single-stage turbines located in the center of the
gas generator case and completely surrounded by the annular combustion chamber liner. The following
subparagraphs discuss the compressor and power turbines.
a. The compressor turbine consists of a turbine disk, blades, and weights. The turbine
drives the compressor in a counterclockwise direction. The turbine assembly is splined to the
compressor front hub and secured by a threaded centerlocking turbine bolt and washer. A master spline
is provided to ensure that the disk assembly is always installed to a position to retain original balance.
The disk has a circumferential reference groove to enable checking disk growth. The 58 cast steel alloy
blades in the compressor turbine disk are secured in fir-tree serrations in the disk by individual tubular
rivets.
The compressor turbine is separated from the power turbine by an interstage baffle.
This baffle prevents dissipation of turbine gas and transmission of heat to turbine disk faces.
b. The power turbine disk assembly, consisting of a turbine disk, blades, and weights,
drives the reduction gearing through the power turbine shaft in a clockwise direction. The power turbine
guide vanes are located ahead of the power turbine rotor in the gas stream. The vanes direct the flow of
gas at the most efficient angle to drive the power turbine. The power turbine disk is made to close
tolerances and has a circumferential reference groove to permit taking disk growth measurements when
required. A master spline insures that the turbine disk assembly is installed in a predetermined position
to retain the original balance. The required number of weights is determined during balancing
procedures and riveted to a special flange located on the rear of the turbine disk. The power turbine
blades differ from those of the compressor turbine in that they are cast with notched and shrouded tips.
The blades are secured by fir-tree serrations in the turbine disk. The blade tips rotate inside a double
knife-edge shroud and form a continuous seal when the engine is running. This reduces tip leakage and
increases turbine efficiency.
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9.8. EXHAUST DUCT
The exhaust duct shown in figure 9.8 consists of a divergent, heat-resistant steel duct
provided with two outlet ports, one on each side of the case. The duct is attached to the front flange of
Figure 9.8. Exhaust Duct, -702.
the gas generator case and consists of inner and
outer sections. The outer conical section, which
has two flanged exhaust outlet ports, forms the
outer gas path and also functions as a structural
member to support the reduction gearbox. The
inner section forms the inner gas path and
provides a compartment for the reduction gearbox
rear case and the power turbine support housing.
A removable sandwich-type heat shield insulates
the rear case and support housing from the hot
exhaust gases. A drain passage located at the 6
o'clock position at flange C leads to the gas
generator case. This automatically drains the
exhaust duct of any fluid accumulated during
engine shutdown through the front drain valve on
the gas generator case.
9.9. REDUCTION GEARBOX
Located at the front of the engine is the reduction gearbox, which consists of two
magnesium alloy castings bolted to the front flange of the exhaust duct. A cross-section view of the
reduction gearbox is illustrated in figure 9.9.
The first stage of reduction is contained in the rear case. Torque from the power turbine is
transmitted through the power turbine shaft to the first stage sun gear. The spur-gear end of the sun
gear drives the three planetary gears in the first stage planet carrier. The first stage ring gear is located in
helical splines in the rear case assembly. The torque developed by the power turbine is transmitted
through the sun gear and planet gears to the ring gear. This results in rotation of the planetary carrier.
The ring gear, though secured by the helical splines, is allowed to move axially between the case and
three retaining plates. This movement is used in the torquemeter located inside the rear gearbox
assembly, which is discussed in paragraph 9.16.
235
Figure 9.9. Reduction Gearbox.
The second stage of reduction is contained in the reduction gearbox front case. The first
stage planet carrier is attached to the second stage sun gear by a flexible coupling which also dampens
any vibrations between the two rotating masses. The second stage sun gear drives five planet gears in
the second stage carrier. A second stage ring gear is fixed by splines to the reduction gearbox front case
and secured by three bolted retaining plates. The second stage carrier is in turn splined to the propeller
shaft and secured by a retaining nut and shroud washer.
The accessories located on the reduction gearbox front case are driven by a bevel drive gear,
mounted on the propeller shaft behind the thrust bearing assembly. Propeller thrust loads are absorbed
by a flanged ball bearing located in the front face of the reduction gearbox centerbore. The thrust
bearing cover is secured to the front of the reduction gearbox, and it has a removable oil seal retaining
ring for replacement of the oil seal.
236
9.10. ACCESSORY GEARBOX
Located at the rear of the engine is the accessory gearbox. It consists of two magnesium
alloy castings attached to the rear flange of the compressor inlet case by 16 studs. The front casting,
provided with front and rear O-rings, forms an oil-tight diaphragm between the oil tank compartment of
the inlet case and the accessory drives. The accessory drive gearbox is illustrated in figure 9.10.
Figure 9.10. Accessory Gearbox Cross Section, -702.
237
The rear casting forms an accessory gearbox cover with support bosses for the accessory drive
bearings and seals. The internal scavenge oil pump is secured inside the housing, and a second scavenge
pump is externally mounted. Mounting pads and studs are located on the rear face for the combined
starter-generator, the fuel control unit with the sandwich-mounted fuel pump, and the N1 tachometergenerator.
Three additional pads are available for optional requirements; see figure 9.11.
Figure 9.11. Accessory Gearbox Train.
An oil tank filler cap and dipstick are located at
the eleven o'clock position on the rear housing.
A centrifugal oil separator mounted on the startergenerator's
drive gearshaft separates the oil from
the engine breather air in the accessory gearbox
housing.
9.11. BEARING INSTALLATION
The compressor rotor assembly is
supported and secured in the rear section of the
gas generator case by two bearings. The outer
race of No. 1 ball bearing is held in its flexible
housings by a special nut and keywasher. The
split inner race, spacer, and rotor seal are stacked
against a shoulder on the compressor rear hub
shaft and secured by a cup-washer and special
nut. The outer flange of the No. 2 roller bearing
is attached to the gas generator centerbore by four
bolts and tablock washers.
The compressor turbine disk holds the plain inner race stacked in position between front and
rear rotor seals on the compressor front stubshaft and a shoulder on the stubshaft. The bearing
installation of the T74 engine is illustrated in figure 9.12.
The power turbine disk and shaft assembly is supported and secured in the power turbine
shaft housing by the No. 3 and No. 4 bearings. Bearing No. 3 is a roller type, and No. 4 is a ball type.
238
Figure 9.12. Bearing Installation.
239
9.12. SUMMARY
The T74 is a light-weight, free-power turbine engine designed for use in fixed-wing aircraft.
It has two independent turbines, one driving a compressor in the gas generator section, and the second
driving a reduction gearing for a propeller installation.
The different engine sections bolt together at flanges, which are identified by letters.
Numbers are used to identify locations or stations on the engine.
The compressor is a three-stage axial rotor, which is housed in the gas generator case.
Located forward of the compressor is the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is of the
annular reverse-flow type. Fourteen fuel nozzles are mounted at the front end of the combustion
chamber liner. The two single-stage turbine rotors are located in the center of the annular combustion
chamber. The compressor turbine assembly is splined to the compressor front hub. The power turbine
rotor drives the reduction gearing through the power turbine shaft.
Ahead of the combustor and turbine assemblies is the exhaust duct. The duct is attached to
the front flange of the gas generator.
Located at the front of the engine are the reduction gearbox and propeller shaft. The
accessory drive gearbox is attached to the aft flange of the compressor inlet case at the rear of the
engine.
The engine has four main bearings. Numbers 1 and 4 are ball bearings, and 2 and 3 are
roller bearings.
Section II. Major Engine Systems
9.13. GENERAL
The T74-CP-702 has four major engine systems: the bleed air system, lubrication system, fuel
system, and instrumentation and ignition system. Each of these systems is essential for safe engine
operation. The section discusses each system in detail in the paragraphs that follow.
9.14. BLEED AIR SYSTEMS
The engine has three separate bleed air systems: a compressor bleed air control, a bearing
compartment airseal, and a turbine
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disk cooling system. The engine is also equipped for cabin-pressurization air. The following
subparagraphs describe the bleed air systems.
a. The compressor bleed air system. Automatically opening a valve in the gas generator
case to spill interstage compressor air, the compressor bleed air system thereby prevents compressor stalls
at low engine speeds. The valve closes gradually as higher engine speeds are attained.
b. Bearing compartment seals. Pressure air is used to seal the 1st, 2d, and 3d bearing
compartments and also to cool both the compressor and the power turbines.
c. Turbine disk cooling system. The compressor and power turbine disks are both cooled
by compressor discharge air bled from the straightening vane area of the diffuser. It is then metered
through holes in the compressor turbine vane support into the turbine hub baffle, where it divides into
three paths. Some of the air is metered to cool the rear face of the compressor turbine disk, and some
to pressurize the bearing seals. The air is then led forward through passages in the compressor turbine
hub to cool the front face of the compressor turbine. A portion of this cooling air is also led through a
passage in the center of the interstage baffle to the rear face of the power turbine disk. The remaining
air is used to cool the front face of the power turbine disk. The cooling air from both of the turbine
disks is dissipated into the main gas stream flow to the atmosphere.
9.15. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The T74 engine oil system is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubricating oil to
the engine bearings, reduction gears, torquemeter, propeller, and all accessory drive gears. The oil system
consists of the components covered in the following subparagraphs. A schematic of the -702 engine
lubrication system is illustrated in figure 9.13.
a. The oil tank is part of the compressor inlet case. The tank has a total capacity of 2. 3
gallons of which 1.5 gallons are usable. This capacity allows for oil expansion of approximately 0.8
gallons.
The oil tank has an oil filler neck and a quantity dipstick and cap which protrudes
through the accessory gearbox housing at the 11 o'clock position. An anti-flooding and breather
arrangement,
241
Figure 9.13. Engine Lubrication System Schematic, -702.
242
located in the highest point of the oil tank, prevents flooding of the accessory gearbox if the oil tank is
overfilled. A drain plug is mounted in the bottom of the tank.
b. A gear-type oil pressure pump is located in the lowest part of the tank. The pump
consists of two gears contained in a cast housing, bolted to the front face of the accessory diaphragm. It
is driven by the accessory gearshaft which drives the internal double-element scavenge pump. The oil
pump has an inlet filter screen, check valve, and relief valve.
c. The oil filter assembly consists of a disposable cartridge type filter element with a
perforated flanged end, bypass valve, and check valve. The filter assembly housing is located in the
compressor inlet case at the 3 o'clock position. If the filter becomes clogged, the increased pressure
opens the bypass valve, and an alternate passage for unfiltered oil to flow through the engine is used.
The check valve, positioned in the end of the housing, prevents gravity flow into the engine after
shutdown and permits the filter element to be changed without having to drain the oil tank.
d. The centrifugal breather consists of a shrouded aluminum alloy impeller secured to the
rear face of the starter-generator gearshaft by a retaining ring. Breather air flows radially inward through
the rotating impeller housing where the oil particles are separated from the air mist by centrifugal force.
The oil particles are thrown outward and drain freely to the bottom of the accessory gearbox. The air is
then routed through a transfer tube to a breather boss on the rear face of the accessory housing where a
connection for an overboard vent line is installed.
e. The oil-to-fuel heater assembly is essentially a heat exchanger which uses heat from the
engine oil lubricating system to preheat the fuel in the engine fuel system. The heater has a
Vermatherm element, which senses fuel temperature, and consists of a highly expansive material sealed
in a metallic chamber. The expansion force is transmitted through a diaphragm and plug to a piston.
The element senses outlet fuel temperatures and, at temperatures above 70° F, starts to close the core
valve and simultaneously opens the bypass valve. At 90° F, the core valve is completely closed and the
oil bypasses the heater core.
9.16. PRESSURE AND SCAVENGE OIL SYSTEMS
Oil for lubrication of engine parts is supplied under pressure by the pressure oil system. This
oil is then returned to the oil tank
243
by the scavenge oil system. The following subparagraphs discuss the pressure and scavenge oil systems.
a. The pressure oil system supplies oil at 85 to 95 psi to the reduction gearbox where it is
divided into two branches. One branch is led to the first stage reduction gears, splines, torquemeter, and
number 3 and 4 bearings. Pressure oil to the torquemeter is led through a metering valve which controls
the flow into the torquemeter chamber. The bearings and gears are lubricated by oil spray jets. The
second branch supplies oil to the propeller governor unit, the accessory drive gears, and propeller thrust
bearing.
b. The scavenge oil system includes two double-element scavenge pumps connected by
internal passages and lines to two main external transfer tubes. One pump is secured inside the
accessory gearbox and the other is externally mounted. They are contained in separate housings and
driven off accessory gearshafts.
The oil from the No. 1 bearing compartment is returned by gravity through an internal
cored passage to the bottom of the compressor inlet case and then through internal passages in the oil
tank and accessory diaphragm into the accessory gearbox. Number 2 bearing oil drains down from its
compartment into an external sump leading rearward to the bottom of the tank. It is then scavenged to
the scavenge pump which forces the oil into the accessory gearbox. The oil from the centrifugal
breather and the input gearshaft and bearings drains to the bottom of the accessory gearbox. It is then
scavenged from the gearbox together with the oil from No. 1 and 2 bearings by the rear element of the
double-element internal scavenge pump. The internal scavenge pump is driven by a quillshaft from the
main oil pump in the oil tank. The external scavenge pump scavenges any reduction gearbox oil which
drains rearward when the engine is in extreme climbing attitudes. Oil from the propeller governor, front
thrust bearing, reduction gear, and torquemeter bleed orifice drains into the reduction gearbox sump.
The oil is then scavenged by the external scavenge pump through the external transfer tube to the
accessory gearbox housing. The oil from both internal and external scavenge pumps is forced through a
T fitting into the airframe oil cooler, where the oil is cooled and passed on to the oil tank. The normal
oil operating temperature is 74° to 80° C.
9.17. TORQUEMETER
The torquemeter is a hydromechanical torque-measuring device located inside the first stage
reduction gear housing. The
244
torquemeter gives an accurate indication of the torque being produced by the power turbine. The torque
pressure value is obtained by tapping the two outlets on the top of the reduction gearbox case. The
pressure differential between the two outlets is then read on an instrument which indicates the correct
torque pressure.
9.18. FUEL SYSTEM
The T74 basic fuel system consists of a single, engine-driven, fuel pump; p fuel control unit,
temperature compensator, and starting control; and a dual fuel manifold with 14 simplex fuel nozzles.
Two drain valves are mounted on the gas generator case to insure drainage of residual fuel after engine
shutdown after a false or aborted start. The -702 fuel system is illustrated in figure 9.14.
a. The fuel pump is a positive displacement gear-type pump and is driven off the
accessory gearbox. Fuel from a booster pump enters the fuel pump through a screen filter and then on
to the pump gear chamber, from where the fuel is pumped at high pressure to the fuel control unit.
The filter screen is spring loaded and should it become blocked, an increase in fuel pressure differential
overcomes the spring, lifts the screen from its seat, and allows unfiltered fuel to flow into the system.
The fuel control unit returns bypassed fuel from the fuel control unit to the pump inlet; see the internal
line in figure 9.14.
b. The fuel control unit is mounted on the engine-driven fuel pump and is driven at a
speed proportional to compressor turbine speed (N1). The control determines the proper fuel schedule
for the engine to produce the power required as established by controlling the speed of the compressor
turbine (N1). Engine power output is directly dependent upon compressor turbine speed. The fuel
control governs the N thereby governing the power output of the engine. Control of N1 is accomplished
by regulating the amount of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber.
c. The temperature compensator is mounted on the compressor case with the bimetallic
disks extending into the inlet air stream. The temperature compensator is illustrated in figure 9.15.
245
Figure 9.14. Engine Fuel System, -702.
246
Figure 9.15. Temperature Compensator, -700.
Compressor discharge pressure (PC) is applied to the compensator. This pressure source
is used to produce a pressure signal to the fuel control unit. The compensator changes the pressure
signal to the fuel control to produce an acceleration schedule, based on inlet air temperature, to prevent
compressor stall or excessive turbine temperature.
d. The starting control consists of a ported plunger sliding in a ported housing. A
schematic of the starting control fuel flow is shown in figure 9.16.
Rotational movement of the input lever is converted to a linear movement of the
plunger through a rack and pinion engagement. A pressurizing valve, located at the inlet to the control,
maintains a minimum pressure in the fuel control to insure correct metering. This valve permits the
primary manifold to fill initially for lightup, and as pressure increases in the control, the transfer valve
opens. This allows fuel to flow into secondary manifold.
e. The fuel manifold assembly delivers a constant supply of high pressure fuel from the
starting control to two sets of seven fuel manifold adapters with simplex nozzles. The dual manifold
consists of 28 short fuel transfer tubes fitted with O-rings at each end and interconnected by 14 fuel
manifold adapters. Locking plates
247
Figure 9.16. Starting Control Fuel Flow, -702.
248
keep the transfer tubes in proper alignment, secured by two bolts to a mounting boss on the
circumference of the gas generator case. Individual transfer tubes or fuel nozzles can be removed and
replaced without necessarily disconnecting the remainder of the set. The fuel manifold assembly is
illustrated in figure 9.17.
9.19. IGNITION SYSTEM
The glow-plug type ignition system is used on the T74 engine for quick light-offs (starts),
even at extremely low ambient temperatures. The basic system consists of a current regulator and two
sets of tubes, two shielded plug leads, and two glow plugs. The following subparagraphs discuss the
components in the ignition system.
a. The current-regulator unit is normally secured to the accessory gearbox housing but can
be remotely mounted if required. The regulator contains four electron tubes, shown in figure 9.18. Each
tube has a pure iron filament surrounded by helium and hydrogen gas and enclosed in a glass envelope
sealed to an octal base. The iron filament, having a negative co-efficient of resistance (resistance
decreases with temperature increase caused by current flow), stabilizes the current flow across the tubes
to a nearly constant value over a wide range of voltages. Each glow plug is wired in series with two
parallel connected ballast tubes. Either glow plug may be selected for starting the engine. The tubes
provide an initial current surge when switched on, which stabilizes to a constant value in approximately
30 seconds. The system heats the glow plugs for fast light-offs.
b. The glow plug consists of a heating element fitted into a short conventional type plug
body. A cross-section illustration of a glow plug is shown in figure 9.19.
The plugs are secured to the gas generator case in threaded bosses. The heating
element consists of a helically wound coil which lies slightly below the end of the plug body. During
starting procedures, the fuel sprayed by the fuel nozzles runs down along the lower wall of the
combustion chamber liner and into the helical coil in the glow plug body. The fuel is vaporized and
ignited by the hot coil element which heats up to approximately 2,400° F. Three air holes in the plug
body allow compressor discharge air from the gas generator case into the plug body, then past the hot
coil in the combustion chamber liner to produce a hot streak or torching effect which ignites the
remainder of the fuel. The air also serves to cool the coil elements when the engine is running with the
glow plugs switched off.
249
Figure 9.17. Fuel Manifold Assembly, -702.
250
Figure 9.18. Current Regulator Circuit.
251
Figure 9.19. Glow Plug.
9.20. INSTRUMENTATION
The following instrumentation is considered necessary for normal operation.
a. The interturbine temperature sensing system is designed to provide the pilot with an
accurate indication of engine operating temperature taken between the gas generator and power turbines.
The system shown in figure 9.20 consists of twin leads, two busbars, and 10 individual chromel-alumel
thermocouple probes connected in parallel. Each probe protrudes through a threaded boss on the power
turbine stator housing into an area adjacent to the leading edge of the power turbine vanes. This system
generates its own electric current.
252
Figure 9.20. Interturbine Temperature Thermocouple Assembly, -700.
b. The oil temperature indicator measures the temperature of the oil as it leaves the
delivery side of the oil pressure pump. The oil temperature bulb is mounted on the accessory gearbox
housing. This system uses 28v dc from the aircraft electrical system.
253
c. The oil pressure indicator measures oil pressure in psi at the delivery side of the oil
pump. The oil pressure transmitter is mounted just above the oil temperature bulb on the accessory
gearbox housing.
d. The turbine tachometer registers compressor turbine speed (N1) as a percentage of
maximum rpm. Propeller shaft speed is registered in hundreds of rpm. The tachometer-generator for
the N1 is mounted at the 5 o'clock position on the accessory gearbox and is driven from the internal
scavenge pump. The propeller tachometer-generator (N2) is mounted on the right side of the reduction
gearbox front case and is driven by a bevel gear on the propeller shaft. The N1 and N2 tachometergenerators
produce their own electrical current.
e. The torquemeter indicating system registers engine output power in psi of torque. The
transmitter converts oil pressure to an electrical signal that registers engine torque on a gage in the pilot's
cockpit.
9.21. SUMMARY
The Pratt and Whitney T74-CP-702 has four major engine systems. The compressor bleedair
system prevents the compressor from stalling during low engine speeds. Compressor bleed-air is also
used for bearing compartment seals and turbine cooling.
The lubrication pressure system produces a constant supply of clean oil to the engine
bearings, reduction gears, torquemeter, propeller, and accessory gears. The oil is then transferred back to
the oil tank by the internal and external scavenge pumps.
The basic fuel system consists of a single engine-driven pump, fuel control unit, temperature
compensator starting control, fuel manifold, and 14 simplex fuel nozzles. The fuel control determines
the fuel flow to the engine to produce the power required. The temperature compensator sends an air
pressure signal to the fuel control to prevent compressor stall or excessive turbine temperature. The
starting control permits the primary manifold to fill for engine starts. The fuel manifold delivers fuel to
two sets of seven simplex nozzles.
The glow plug ignition system is capable of quick light-offs at extremely low ambient
temperature. The fuel is vaporized and ignited by the hot coil element in the glow plug. The engine is
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equipped with instrumentation to monitor engine operation during flight measures temperature in the
turbine section.
Turbine tachometers register N1 speed as a percentage of maximum gas generator rpm. The
propeller tachometers (N2) register shaft speed in hundreds of rpm. Each indicator is directly responsive
to a tachometer-generator unit attached to a corresponding engine section.
Oil pressure is taken from the delivery side of the main oil pressure pump and registered in
psi.
Oil temperature is taken from the delivery side of the oil pressure pump and registered in
degrees centigrade.
The torquemeters indicate torque in psi applied to the propeller shaft.
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Chapter 10
GENERAL ELECTRIC T700-GE-700
10.1. INTRODUCTION
General Electric is developing the T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine for the U. S. Army Utility
Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS). The T700 is designed to operate in combat with improved
reliability, easy maintenance, low fuel consumption, and extended operating life.
The T700 will operate with no visible smoke and at low noise levels. External lines and leads
have been reduced in number and grouped for armoring protection. The engine also contains its own
lubrication and electrical systems to reduce dependence on the airframe systems.
10.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The T700 is an axial-flow, free-power, turboshaft engine rated at 1,500 shp. It has a fivestage
axial, single-stage centrifugal compressor; an annular combustor; a two-stage gas generator (N1)
turbine; and a two-stage power turbine. An engine-driven inlet particle separator is located ahead of the
compressor. For field maintenances, the engine breaks down into four modules: controls and
accessories, cold section, hot section, and power turbine.
The engine is constructed of corrosion-resistant steel except for a titanium axial-compressor
casing, aluminum inlet-separator frame, and magnesium gearbox case. The engine dimensions in inches
are length 47, height 23, and width 25. A cutaway illustration of the T700-GE-700 is shown in figure
10.1.
10.3. CENTRIFUGAL INLET SEPARATOR
Figure 10.2 shows the centrifugal inlet separator and a schematic of its operation. The inlet
air passes through the fixed separator swirl vanes which swirl the air, and centrifugal force throws the
particles to the separator collection scroll. The scroll is scavenged by an engine-driven blower mounted
on the accessory gearbox.
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(continued on next page)
Figure 10.1. Cutaway View of the T700-GE-700.
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257a
THIS PAGE WAS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Figure 10.2. Centrifugal Inlet Separator.
259
10.4. COMPRESSOR
The compressor has five axial stages and one centrifugal stage. The inlet guide vanes and the
first and second stage stator vanes in the compressor vary their angle of attack according to compressor
speed. The centrifugal impeller is mounted aft and on the same shaft as the axial compressor. One of
the major design differences of the T700 is that the axial-compressor rotor stage blades and disks are
one-piece castings. This means better rotor integrity and also easier buildup and overhaul. The
compressor has very few blades, 332 total. This is about one-third the number in comparable current
engines. Stages one and five have borescope ports for inspections. Just aft of the centrifugal impeller is
the diffuser passage.
10.5. COMBUSTOR
The annular combustion chamber is located aft of the diffuser. Engine durability and time
between overhauls (TBO) are directly related to the heat of the combustor. If the combustor can
develop the power required at a lower temperature, component service life can be increased.
The combustor has twelve vaporizing fuel injectors and two atomizing start-fuel nozzles.
The axial type vaporizing combustor operates with a lower peak temperature factor. Axial flow ensures
minimum liner area and hence minimizes the amount of secondary cooling air to be mixed into the hot
gas stream. The annular combustion chamber can be seen in figure 10.1.
10.6. GAS GENERATOR TURBINE
The T700 gas generator turbine is a two-stage, air-cooled, high-performance, axial-flow
turbine. The modular concept has been used in the gas generator turbine design for ease of assembly
and maintenance. The turbine is divided into easily accessible submodules consisting of the first stage
turbine nozzle and the turbine rotor.
The first stage nozzle submodule consists of 24 air-cooled cast vane segments brazed in pairs.
These twelve pairs are assembled to the inner support and held in place by a retaining ring with bolts.
The rotor submodule consists of the turbine rotor combined with the second nozzles,
supports, and shrouds. Both first and second stage disks, cooling plates, and turbine blades are clamped
by
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five short tiebolts. Five longer tiebolts clamp this rotor assembly to the forward shaft through the
forward coupling. Loosening these five longer tiebolts does not disturb the rotor assembly itself,
permitting simple maintenance without special tools. Thirteen second-stage nozzle segments of two
vanes each are held by the outer support, which is also assembled with the first stage shroud segments
and second stage shroud support.
All airfoils (vanes) are internally cooled. The first stage nozzle leading edge is air-cooled,
with the air exiting through holes in the vane airfoils. The midchord region is convection-cooled, with
cooling air exiting both through pressure holes and trailing edge slots. Cooling air for the second stage
nozzle is bled from the centrifugal compressor exit and piped back through the turbine casting. The air
enters the second stage nozzle through bushings and cools the nozzles by internal airflow exiting
through trailing edge and inner band holes. The turbine blades are air-cooled through radial holes. Air
enters through the dovetail and exits at the tip. The first stage blades also employ trailing edge holes for
cooling.
10.7. POWER TURBINE
This component is a two-stage uncooled tip-shrouded design with replaceable turbine blades
and nozzle segments. The output shaft governing speed range is from 17,000 to 23,000 rpm with a
maximum rated speed of 24,000 rpm.
The power turbine is a self-contained module which can be disassembled and reassembled to
the gas generator without special tools.
The rotor assembly consists of the third and fourth stage disks mounted on a drive shaft
supported by four bearings. The third stage disk is secured to the drive shaft by a flange, allowing quick
removal from the drive shaft without removal of the aft sump or rear frame. The third stage disk has
46 tip-shrouded blades attached to the disk through conventional dovetails and retained axially by bent
locking strips. A similar arrangement is used on stage four where 50 blades are employed.
The drive shaft is a hollow one-piece unit splined to the short output shaft at the forward
end. An integral feature of the drive shaft is the torque sensor that mechanically displays the total twist
of the drive shaft, which is electrically sensed and processed. This mechanical display of total twist is
accomplished by a reference shaft that is pinned to the front end and extends back to the aft end, where
261
it is free to rotate relative to the drive shaft. The relative rotation is due to transmitted torque, and the
phase angle between the reference surfaces is electronically sensed by two pickups, one sensing five teeth
on the reference shaft, the other sensing five teeth on the drive shaft.
Both stages of each turbine nozzle are cast in segments. The third stage has six segments of
six vanes each, and the fourth stage has 10 segments of five vanes each. The static tip shrouds are
replaceable in four segments each and are of open cell honeycomb arrangement.
10.8. BEARING ARRANGEMENT
Figure 10.1 shows the T700-GE-700 bearing and frame arrangement. The four bearings and
shaft arrangement at the front of the axial compressor isolate the driveshaft from the engine.
Circumferential carbon seals are used on the power turbine shaft, and labyrinth seals are used
on the gas generator shaft. The front frame has eighteen deswirl vanes which are part of the structure.
10.9. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
A schematic of the lubricating system is shown in figure 10.3. The oil tank is built into the
inlet particle separator. All scavenge lines have magnetic chip detection for fault isolation. An
emergency lubrication system has been built into the design for assuring continued bearing operation
after loss of oil from any cause. Small oil reservoirs are included in each bearing sump, and are kept full
during normal operation by the oil pressure pumps. Oil is always bleeding out of these reservoirs at a
slow rate. Air jets, also continuous, act as "foggers" for this oil bleed and provide oil mist lubrication at
all times. This continues for at least six minutes even if the oil supply fails. A fuel-oil heat exchange is
a self-contained oil cooler and fuel de-icer.
10.10. MAINTAINABILITY
The engine has been designed for ease of servicing and maintenance. Borescope inspections
can be made in critical areas where sand and dust erosion and clogging, corrosion, and foreign object
damage can occur and in other critical areas where inspections are necessary.
262
Figure 10.3. Lubrication System Schematic.
263
The T700 design offers the following maintenance benefits: no special tools required for
module replacement, no critical measurements required for module replacement, no component
replacement at direct support. Any maintenance action requiring special tools is accomplished at depot
level.
10.11. SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
The T700-GE-700 engine has been designed to meet the required design life of 5,000 hours.
The T700 is a durably designed engine and does not require frequent scheduled checks or adjustments.
An example of this feature is that the fuel control requires no field adjustments.
10.12. SUMMARY
The General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine is presently being developed to power
the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS). The engine is an axial-flow free-power turbine
design, rated at 1, 536 shp. The engine is made up of four modules: accessory gearbox, cold section, hot
section, and power turbine.
Mounted on the front of the engine is a centrifugal inlet particle separator to keep foreign
objects from entering the compressor. The compressor has five axial stages and one centrifugal stage.
The annular combustion chamber has 12 vaporizing fuel injectors and two atomizing start-fuel nozzles.
The gas generator turbine and power turbine are two-stage axial flow turbines. An emergency oil system
has been designed to ensure limited engine operation after loss of oil. The oil tank is built into the inlet
separator.
The engine has been designed for improved reliability, easy maintenance, low fuel
consumption, and extended operating life. All field maintenance can be performed without special tools.
The engine can be internally inspected by the borescope method, rather than by engine teardown. The
engine will have a design life of 5,000 hours.
264
Appendix I
REFERENCES
Army Regulations
AR 310-25 Dictionary of United States Army Terms
AR 310-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes
Technical Manuals
TM 55-406 Fundamentals of Aircraft Powerplant Maintenance
TM 55-2840-229-24/T.O. 2J-T53-16 Maintenance: Organizational, Direct Support, and General Support,
Engine, Shaft Turbine
U. S. Army Transportation School Publications
333-335 T53-L-13 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-337 T74-CP-700 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-339 T63-A-5A/700 Gas Turbine Engine Advance Sheet
333-374 JFTD-12A-1/T-73-P-1 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-375 T55-L-11 Turboshaft, Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-385 Jet Cal Analyzer
333-394 T55-L-7, T55-L-7C Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-397 T62 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
263
Appendix II
GLOSSARY
Acceleration lag -- in the turbine engine, delay between the time instant power is requested and when
power is available. The time it takes the engine to accelerate and give the required power
increase.
Aerodynamic drag -- force which thrust must overcome to move an aircraft forward. Design can lessen
aerodynamic drag through streamlining. Drag increases with increased speed.
Airbleed actuator -- device that operates the interstage bleed system, to improve compressor acceleration
characteristics by unloading small amounts of compressed air.
Air density -- total mass of air per given volume, the weight of a given volume of air. Air is denser at
lower altitude, at lower temperature, and lower humidity.
Air-fuel ratio -- 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by weight, the mixture to be burned in the combustion
chamber.
Air inlet -- large, smooth aluminum duct to conduct the air into the compressor.
Ambient air -- surrounding air.
Angle of attack -- the acute angle formed by the direction of the relative wind and some longitudinal
reference axis of the aircraft.
Annular combustion chamber -- two-part combustion chamber made up of an annular liner and a
housing assembly. The compressed air goes into a ring-shaped space formed by the annular liner
around the turbine shaft rather than into individual combustion chambers. The space between
the outer liner wall and the housing assembly allows the flow of cooling air. Used with axialflow
and dual compressors.
Annular reverse-flow -- type of gas turbine engine most commonly used in Army aircraft. Air flow
direction is reversed in the combustion area.
264
Anodizing -- putting a protective oxide film on a light metal by an electrolytic process.
Anti-icing system -- device that supplies hot air under pressure to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas
and inlet guide vanes. Hot scavenged oil is also circulated through internal passages in the walls
and struts.
Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) -- periodic oil analysis for microscopic metal
particles. This takes place at an oil analysis laboratory.
Atmospheric pressure -- barometric pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of gravitational
attraction above the point in question.
Atomizer -- nozzle that creates a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray of fuel suitable for rapid
mixing and combustion.
Axial-flow compressor -- one in which the air is compressed parallel to the axis of the engine. It is
made up of a series of alternating rotor and stator vane stages.
Bleed system -- device that unloads small amounts of air to relieve pressure.
Boss -- raised rim around a hole; e.g., axle hole in a wheel. Circular projection on a casting, usually
serving as the seat for a bolt head or nut.
Brayton cycle -- constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes simultaneously
and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power. The turbine engine operates on this cycle.
Can-annular combustion chamber -- one with characteristics of both the can and annular types. It has
an outer shell and a number of individual cylindrical liners.
Can combustion chamber -- one made up of individual combustion chambers in which the air from the
compressor enters each individual chamber through the adapter.
Caustics -- substances that can burn, corrode, or destroy animal or other organic tissue by chemical
action.
265
Centrifugal-axial flow compressor -- combination of the centrifugal-flow and the axial-flow compressors.
It usually consists of a five- or seven-stage axial-flow compressor and one centrifugal-flow
compressor. Also called the dual compressor.
Centrifugal-flow compressor -- one with an impeller (rotor), stator, and compressor manifold. The rotor
revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Centrifugal force accelerates the air, and it
moves through the stator and through the manifold.
Combustion -- process of burning the fuel-air mixture in a gas turbine engine.
Combustion chamber -- part of a turbine engine in which the propulsive power is developed by
combustion of the injected fuel and the expansive force of the resulting gases.
Combustion chamber liner -- engine part usually constructed of welded high-nickel steel, subjected to
flame of extremely high temperature. It is behind the compressor and receives the compressed
air which is mixed with fuel and ignited. The combustor is where the combustion takes place.
Combustor -- the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with its associated burners, igniters, and
injection devices.
Compressor -- that section of an engine that produces an increase in air pressure. It is made up of
rotating and stationary vane assemblies. It is the gas producer, or it may be thought of as an air
pump.
Compressor rotor -- impeller, may be thought of as an air pump. It accelerates the air rearward into the
first stage vane assemblies.
Compressor stall -- separation of the airflow from the suction surface of the fixed or rotating blades of a
compressor. Any degree of stall reduces airflow.
Concave -- pressure side of an airfoil.
Conduction -- transfer of heat through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to
particle rather than by a flow of heated material.
266
Convergent area -- place where the cross-sectional area of a duct becomes smaller.
Convergent exhaust duct -- used on fixed-wing aircraft, formed by tapering toward the rear of the duct.
Convex -- suction side of an airfoil.
Crossover tube -- duct carrying flame to the individual cylindrical liners of the can-annular combustion
chamber.
Diffuser -- aft structural member of an engine. It receives high velocity air from the centrifugal impeller
and decreases velocity and increases air pressure. In the combustor, a diffuser forms a divergent
flow path for the exhaust gases.
Diffusion -- process by which gases intermingle as the result of their spontaneous movement caused by
thermal agitation.
Directional references -- specific definitions of terms referring to gas turbine engines to identify front
and rear, right and left, bottom and top.
Divergent area -- place where air flows from a smaller into a larger area.
Divergent exhaust duct -- used on helicopters, device to diffuse the exhaust gases rearward and to
eliminate thrust.
Dry-cleaning solvent -- cleaning compound that may be used for all metal parts.
Dry-sump engine -- one in which the oil is stored separate from the engine.
Dual compressor -- see centrifugal-flow, axial-flow compressor.
Duplex nozzle -- dual-orifice channel through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of
fuel go into the combustion chamber.
Engine airflow path -- route of the airflow through the engine. See paragraph 4. 4a for a detailed
description of airflow through a T53-L-13.
267
Engine oil pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings of engine oil pump
pressure in psi.
Engine oil temperature indicating system -- device electrically connected to the 28v dc system which
transmits temperature readings to the indicator in degrees centrigrade.
Engine speed notation -- capital letter N represents the rotational speed of the engine. When a number
is placed after the N, as in N1, it indicates a specific system on the engine.
Engine stations -- specific locations on the engine designating temperature- or pressure-measuring
locations. For example, T3 means the third temperature pickup on the engine.
Engine surge -- result of compressor stall. The complete engine in stall.
Exhaust -- hot gases discharged from the engine through the exhaust diffuser section.
Exhaust diffuser -- section composed of an inner and outer housing, separated by hollow struts across
the exhaust passage. It forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases.
Exhaust gas temperature indicator -- sensitive millivoltmeter calibrated in degree centigrade, activated by
an electrical force generated by its thermocouple.
Fir tree mount -- manner of attaching the blades to the disk in the turbine rotor assembly. The root of
the blade where it is attached to the disk is shaped like a fir tree. See figures 1.27 and 1.28 on
page 42.
Foreign object damage -- commonly called FOD, harm or destruction to the turbine engine caused by
foreign objects sucked into the inlet area of the engine with the required air.
Forged -- shaped by hammering. Only the malleable metals are worked successfully. The application of
heat increases plasticity.
268
Free-power turbine engine -- the turbine engine used by the Army. Sixty percent of the energy produced
by combustion is extracted by the gas producer turbine to drive the gas producer rotor. The rest
of the energy is converted to shaft horsepower to drive the out-put shaft of the engine.
Frictional loss -- resistance to the relative motion of air flowing along a duct.
Frontal area -- front part of a gas turbine engine, smaller than that of a reciprocating engine, therefore
producing less drag.
Front of engine -- end from which power is extracted. An exception is the T73 engine on the CH-54, in
which the power is extracted at the end where the exhaust gas is expelled.
Fuel-air ratio -- see air-fuel ratio.
Fuel atomizer -- See atomizer.
Fuel controls -- devices to control fuel flow. They are usually hydromechanical and include speed
governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems, and sensing pickups.
Fuel divider -- device that meters fuel to the engine nozzles according to a predetermined schedule of
secondary flow versus primary flow.
Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately
shaped spray.
Fuel pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings in psi of fuel pressure in the
main fuel supply line.
Gas producer (N1) -- compressor in a free-power turbine engine.
Gas turbine engine -- aircraft powerplant that is adaptable for both airplanes and helicopters.
Gerotor pump -- modified gear-type pump with two moving parts, an inner toothed element and an
outer toothed element. The inner one has one less tooth than the outer.
Glow plug -- device that consists of a heating element in a short conventional-looking spark plug.
269
Heat exchanger -- fuel-oil cooler, to help cool the oil. The exchanger is a cylindrical oil chamber
surrounded by a jacket through which the fuel passes. Heat from the oil is transferred to the
fuel by conduction.
Humidity -- amount or degree of moisture in the air. If humidity increases, air density is decreased.
Humidity has little effect on density, however, in comparison with temperature and pressure
changes.
Igniter plugs -- spark plugs which function only during starting and cut out of the circuit as soon as
combustion is self-supporting.
Imbalance -- uneven distribution of weight resulting in rotating parts being out of balance. Measured in
inch-grams or inch-ounces.
Impeller rotor -- rotor in a compressor that revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades.
Inlet guide vanes -- devices positioned by the inlet guide vane actuator pilot valve. They are located in
front of the first compressor rotor, and they control the angle of incidence of the inlet air, thus
ensuring a compressor surge margin.
Inlet housing assembly -- forward structural support of the engine.
Jetcal analyzer -- device used to check the exhaust gas temperature during periodic maintenance
inspections or when abnormally high or low temperatures are noted.
Jet propulsion -- propulsion of a body by means of a jet or stream of gas, obtaining all or most if its
thrust by reaction to the ejection of the combustion products (gas).
Joule -- unit of energy or work used in rating gas turbine ignition systems. A joule is equal to the
amount of energy expended in one second by an electric current of one ampere through a
resistance of one ohm.
Kinetic energy -- work energy associated with motion.
Labyrinth seal -- device for preventing leakage of gas on the gas generator shaft in a turbine. A
labyrinth consists of a series of projections on the rotating element running in close contact with
grooves on the stationary element.
270
Maintenance allocation chart -- chart in a -20 TM that assigns maintenance tasks to the lowest level
capable of doing them, based on experience, skills, tools, and time available.
Manifold -- component in which air or gases are collected for intake or expulsion.
Micron --one millionth of a meter.
Mil -- unit of length equal to 1/1000 inch. Unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of the
circumference of a circle.
N1 system -- gas producer.
N2 system -- power turbine and shaft.
Nacelle -- enclosed housing for an aircraft engine, outside the fuselage.
Nozzle -- channel through which gas is conveyed to the rotor vanes of a turbine. Its purpose is to
convert pressure into velocity.
Orifice -- opening having a closed perimeter through which a fluid may discharge. It may be open to the
atmosphere, or it may be partially or completely submerged in the discharged fluid.
Oscillograph -- instrument that produces a record of variations in an electrical quantity.
Oscilloscope -- instrument that shows the presence and form of an electric current.
Outside air temperature -- commonly abbreviated as O. A. T, the temperature of the air outside the
engine.
Otto cycle -- a constant volume cycle, with four distinct operations performed intermittently.
Reciprocating engines operate on this cycle.
Overspeed governor, N2 -- gearbox mounted on engine inlet housing and driven from the power shaft.
Overspeed governor, fuel control -- part of the torquemeter system, an individual pumping unit which,
with the tachometer drive assembly, sets the torquemeter oil pressure.
271
PD 680 -- cleaning solvent for exterior of engine and its attached components.
Pneumatic -- something moved or worked by air pressure.
Power-to-weight ratio -- relationship between power and weight. Turbine engines produce more power
for weight than reciprocating engines.
Power turbine (N2) -- turbine that is free and independent of the gas producer system. It develops
rotational shaft power.
Pressure oil system -- method of supplying oil under pressure to engine parts.
Pressure pumps -- devices to put oil into the system.
Pressurizing and drain dump valve -- device to prevent flow of fuel to the nozzle until enough pressure
is built up in the fuel control. One also drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown and traps
fuel in the upper portion of the system to keep the fuel control primed for faster starts.
Primary air -- air that mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber, to form a combustible mixture. The
ratio is 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel.
Radial inflow turbine -- type of turbine made by some manufacturers, not used in any Army aircraft
today, even though it is rugged and simple, relatively inexpensive, and easy to manufacture.
Similar in design and construction to the centrifugal-flow compressor.
Ram air pressure -- free stream air pressure, provided by the forward motion of the engine.
Rear of engine -- end of engine from which exhaust gas is expelled.
Reciprocating engine -- device which produces motion in which the power originates in pistons and
cylinders.
Reverse flow -- change in direction of airflow in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine.
Rotational direction -- direction of movement of the rotating part, determined by viewing the engine
from the rear.
272
Rotor -- in a gas turbine engine, the turbine wheel.
Scavenge oil system -- method of returning oil from the engine to the oil tank, for cooling and reuse.
Scavenger pumps -- those that drain oil from the sumps at various parts of the engine, return it through
the oil cooler, and back to the oil tank.
Secondary air -- large surplus of air that cools the hot sections of a gas turbine engine to lower
temperatures.
Shaft horsepower (SHP) -- energy used to drive the compressor and accessories in a turbine engine.
Shroud -- device used with turbine rotor to prevent blade tip losses and excessive vibrations. The
shrouded blades can be thinner than unprotected ones.
Simplex nozzles -- single-orifice channels through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of
fuel go into the combustion chamber.
Solvent immersion -- cleaning method in which parts are immersed in solvent to remove carbon, gum,
grease, and other surface contaminants.
Splines -- teeth in a gear.
Speed governor -- device to relieve the pilot from resetting the power lever when outside air temperature
and pressure change. Consists of flyweights balanced by a spring.
Standard day conditions -- 59°F, sea level barometric pressure (29.92 inches of mercury).
Stator -- part of assembly that remains stationary with respect to a rotating part. Stator vanes are a
stationary set of airfoils in a compressor.
Tachometer -- device that gives the pilot a continuous indication of engine rpm.
Tachometer generator -- device that supplies power at a frequency proportional to the driven speed
which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator.
273
TBO -- time between overhauls. This is established by the Army and the engine manufacturer.
Test cell -- building, usually concrete, that contains both a control room and an engine room, used for
testing engines. The test cell is at the manufacturer's; a mobile engine-test unit is used in the
field.
Thermocouple -- device composed of two pieces of metal or wire joined where heat is to be applied and
the free end connected to an electrical measuring instrument.
Thermodynamic cycle -- succession of processes which involve changes in temperature, pressure, and
density in which the substance acts as a means of transformation of energy. See Otto and
Brayton cycles.
Thrust -- pushing or pulling force developed by an aircraft engine.
Torquemeter -- hydromechanical torque-measuring device located in the reduction-gear section of the
inlet housing. The measurement is read as torque oil pressure in psi.
Torquemeter indicating system -- pressure indicator for continuous readings of engine output-shaft
torque.
Transducer -- device actuated by power from one system and supplying power to a second system.
Turbine -- rotary engine actuated by the reaction of a current of fluid (gas in this case) subject to
pressure. The turbine is usually made with a series of curved vanes on a central spindle arranged
to rotate.
Turbine nozzle -- stationary nozzle which discharges a jet of gas against the blades on the periphery of a
turbine wheel.
Turbine rotor -- rotating portion of a turbine engine. It is made of specially alloyed steel because of
severe centrifugal loads, the result of high rotational speeds.
Turbine section -- part of the turbine engine that extracts the kinetic energy of the expanding gases and
transforms it into shaft horsepower.
Turbofan -- compressor section of a turbine engine.
274
Turbojet -- engine most commonly used in high-speed, high-altitude aircraft.
Turboprop engine -- one in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to
rotational shaft power, to provide power for a propeller.
Turboshaft -- engine in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational
shaft power, to provide power for a helicopter transmission.
Vapor blasting -- abrasive method used to clean combustor parts. Not to be used on ceramic,
magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces.
Vapor degreasing -- cleaning method used on unpainted metal parts or aluminum-painted steel parts.
Vaporizing tubes -- devices used instead of fuel nozzles in a T53-L-11 engine.
Variable inlet guide vanes -- devices located in front of the first compressor rotor to guide the angle of
incidence of the inlet air to the first compressor rotor.
Velocity -- speed or rate of motion in a given direction, and in a given frame of reference.
Venturi -- short tube with flaring ends connected by a constricted middle section forming a throat. It
depends for operation upon the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases in the throat, the
pressure decreases. It is used for measuring the quantity of a fluid flowing in connection with
other devices for measuring airspeed and for producing suction, especially for driving aircraft
instruments by means of a branch tube joined at the throat.
Vermatherm element -- device which senses outlet fuel temperature and closes the core valve and opens
the bypass valve.
Vibration -- periodic motion of a body or medium in alternately opposite directions from the position of
equilibrium. Vibration meter--device for measuring vibrations.
Weldment -- unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces, as in gear housing.
275
INDEX
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
CORRESPONDENCE COURSE OF THE
U.S. ARMY TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL
SOLUTIONS
AVIATION LOGISTICS 0993........................................................................Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines.
(All references are to Reference Text AL0993.)
Lesson 1
Weight Exercise
3 1. B, false. (par. 1.12d)
3 2. A, true. (par. 1.8)
3 3. A, true. (par. 1.3)
3 4. A, true. (par. 1.10)
3 5. B, false. (par. 1.5)
3 6. B, false. (par. 1.12a)
3 7. A, true. (par. 1.12b)
3 8. A, true. (par. 1.13a)
3 9. B, false (par. 1.12e)
3 10. A, true. (par. 1.13e)
3 11. B, false. (par. 1.13c)
3 12. A, true. (par. 1.9)
3 13. B, false. (par. 1.9)
3 14. A, true. (par. 1.9)
3 15. A, true. (pars. 1.5, 1.9)
3 16. A, true. (par. 1.9)
All concerned will be careful that neither this solution nor information concerning the same
comes into the possession of students or prospective students who have not completed the work to
which it pertains.
1 AL0993
Weight Exercise
3 17. A, true. (par. 1.5)
3 18. A, true. (par. 1.5)
3 19. B, false. (par. 1.5)
3 20. B, false. (par. 1.5)
3 21. A, true. (par. 1.5)
3 22. B, false. (par. 1.11)
3 23. A, true. (par. 1.11)
3 24. A, true. (par. 1.11)
3 25. B, false. (par. 1.11)
3 26. A, true. (par. 1.11)
2 27. A, true. (par. 1.4)
2 28. B, false. (par. 1.4)
2 29. B, false. (par. 1.4)
2 30. A, true. (par. 1.4)
2 31. A, true. (par. 1.4)
2 32. B. (par. 1.3)
2 33. E. (par. 1.3)
2 34. C. (par. 1.3)
2 35. A. (par. 1.3)
2 36. D. (par. 1.3)
2 37. C. (par. 1.3)
2
LESSON 2
Weight Exercise
3 1. B, false. (par. 1.24)
3 2. A, true. (par. 1.17)
3 3. A, true. (par. 1.21)
3 4. B, false. (par. 1.19c)
3 5. A, true. (par. 1.16c)
3 6. B, false. (par. 1.19b)
3 7. A, true. (par. 1.19c)
3 8. B, false. (par. 1.19c)
3 9. B, false. (par. 1.19a)
3 10. A, true. (par. 1.19b)
2 11. B, false. (par. 1.22a)
2 12. A, true. (par. 1.22b)
2 13. A, true. (par. 1.22a)
2 14. B, false. (par. 1.22a)
2 15. A, true. (par. 1.22b)
2 16. B, false. (par. 1.20)
2 17. 3, false. (par. 1.20)
2 18. A, true. (par. 1.20)
2 19. B, false. (par. 1.20)
2 20. A, true. (par. 1.20)
2 21. A, true. (par. 1.20)
3
Weight Exercise
2 22. A, true. (par. 1.17)
2 23. B, false. (par. 1.17)
2 24. B, false. (par. 1.17)
2 25. A, true. (par. 1.17)
2 26. B, false. (par. 1.17)
2 27. A, true. (par. 1.19)
2 28. B, false. (par. 1.19)
2 29. B, false. (par. 1.19)
2 30. A, true. (par. 1.19)
2 31. A, true. (par. 1.19)
2 32. A, true. (par. 1.23)
2 33. A, true. (par. 1.23)
2 34. A, true. (par. 1.23)
2 35. B, false. (par. 1.23)
2 36. B, false. (par. 1.23)
2 37. E. (table I)
2 38. B. (par. 1.16a)
2 39. D. (table I)
2 40. A. (par. 1.16a)
2 41. C. (table I)
2 42. A. (par 1.21)
2 43. B. (par. 1.21)
4
Weight Exercise
2 44. C. (par. 1.21)
2 45. D. (par. 1.21a)
LESSON 3
2 1. B, false. (par. 2.21)
2 2. B, false. (par. 2.2)
2 3. A, true. (par. 2.18)
2 4. A, true. (par. 2.24)
2 5. A, true. (par. 2.9)
2 6. A, true. (par. 2.4)
2 7. A, true. (par. 2.8)
2 8. A, true. (par. 2.8)
2 9. A, true. (par. 2.8)
2 10. A, true. (par. 2.8)
2 11. B, false. (par. 2.8)
2 12. B, false. (par. 2.22)
2 13. A, true. (par. 2.22)
2 14. B, false. (par. 2.23)
2 15. A, true. (par. 2.22)
2 16. B, false. (par. 2.23)
2 17. A, true. (par. 2.22)
2 18. B, false. (par. 2.12)
2 19. A, true. (par. 2.14)
5
Weight Exercise
2 20. B, false. (par. 2.15)
2 21. B, false. (par. 2.16)
2 22. A, true. (par. 2.15)
2 23. A, true. (par. 2.14)
2 24. B, false. (par. 2.13)
2 25. A, true. (par. 2.3a)
2 26. A, true. (par. 2.3a)
2 27. B, false. (par. 2.3b)
2 28. A, true. (par. 2.3)
2 29. B, false. (par. 2.3a, b)
2 30. B, false. (par. 2.5)
2 31. A, true. (par. 2.5)
2 32. B, false. (par. 2.5)
2 33. A, true. (par. 2.5)
2 34. A, true. (par. 2.5)
2 35. B, false. (par. 2.7a)
2 36. B, false. (par. 2.7,c)
2 37. A, true. (par. 2.7b)
2 38. A, true. (par. 2.7b)
2 39. A, true. (par. 2.7b)
2 40. B, false. (par 2.3)
2 41. A, true. (par. 2.3)
6
Weight Exercise
2 42. B, false. (par. 2.3)
2 43. A, true. (par. 2.3)
2 44. A, true. (par. 2.3)
2 45. A. (par. 2.25a)
2 46. D. (par. 2.25e)
2 47. C. (par. 2.25d)
2 48. B. (par. 2.25c)
2 49. D. (par. 2.25e)
2 50. A. (par. 2.25a)
LESSON 4
2 1. A, true. (par. 3.6)
2 2. A, true. (par. 3.14)
2 3. A, true. (par. 3.9)
2 4. A, true. (par. 3.4)
2 5. B, false. (par. 3.12)
2 6. B, false. (par. 3.5)
2 7. B, false. (par. 3.8)
2 8. A, true. (par. 3.7)
2 9. B, false. (par. 3.7e)
2 10. B, false. (par. 3.7b)
2 11. A, true. (par. 3.7d)
2 12. A, true. (par. 3.7c)
7
Weight Exercise
2 13. B, false. (par. 3.7a)
2 14. A, true. (par. 3.2)
2 15. B, false. (par. 3.2)
2 16. A, true. (par. 3.2)
2 17. B, false. (par. 3.2)
2 18. A, true. (par. 3.2)
2 19. A, true. (par. 3.2)
2 20. B, false. (par. 3.2)
3 21. B, false. (par. 3.10n)
3 22. A, true. (par. 3.10)
3 23. B, false. (par. 3.10)
3 24. A, true. (par. 3.10)
3 25. B, false. (par. 3.10j)
3 26. A, true. (par. 3.10)
3 27. B, false. (par. 3.13a)
3 28. B, false. (par. 3.11)
3 29. B, false. (par. 3.11a)
3 30. A, true. (par. 3.13c)
3 31. A, true. (par. 3.11a, b)
3 32. A, true. (par. 3.13)
2 33. B, false. (par. 3.3)
2 34. A, true. (par. 3.3)
8
Weight Exercise
2 35. A, true. (par. 3.3)
2 36. B, false. (par. 3.3)
2 37. A, true. (par. 3.3)
2 38. B, false. (par. 3.3)
2 39. D. (par. 3.9d)
2 40. B. (par. 3.9b)
2 41. A. (par. 3.9a)
2 42. D. (par. 3.9d)
2 43. A. (par. 3.9a)
2 44. B. (par. 3.9b)
LESSON 5
1 1. A, true. (par. 4.3)
1 2. A, true. (par. 4.13)
1 3. B, false. (par. 4.21)
1 4. B, false. (pars. 4.1, 4.6)
1 5. A, true. (par. 4.16)
1 6. B, false. (par. 4.7)
1 7. B, false. (par. 4.17)
1 8. B, false. (par. 4.9)
2 9. A, true. (par. 4.10b)
2 10. B, false. (par. 4.10)
2 11. B, false. (par. 4.10)
2 12. A, true. (par. 4.10b)
9
Weight Exercise
2 13. B, false. (par. 4.10a)
1 14. B, false. (par. 4.4a)
1 15. B, false. (par. 4.4a)
1 16. B, false. (par. 4.4a)
1 17. A, true. (par. 4.4a)
1 18. A, true. (par. 4.4a)
2 19. B, false. (par. 4.11a, b)
2 20. B, false. (par. 4.11)
2 21. A, true. (par. 4.11a)
2 22. B, false. (par. 4.11a, b)
2 23. A, true. (par. 4.11b)
2 24. B, false. (par. 4.21)
2 25. A, true. (par. 4.21)
2 26. B, false. (par. 4.21)
2 27. A, true. (par. 4.21)
2 28. A, true. (par. 4.21)
2 29. B, false. (par. 4.4b)
2 30. A, true. (par. 4.4b)
2 31. B, false. (par. 4.4b)
2 32. A, true. (par. 4.4b)
2 33. A, true. (par. 4.4b)
2 34. A. true. (par. 4.12)
2 35. A, true. (par. 4.12)
10
Weight Exercise
2 36. A, true. (par. 4.12)
2 37. B, false. (par. 4.12)
2 38. B, false. (par. 4.12)
2 39. A, true. (par. 4.12)
2 40. B, false. (par. 4.14)
2 41. A, true. (par. 4.14b)
2 42. B, false. (par. 4.14a)
2 43. B, false. (par. 4.14c)
2 44. A, true. (par. 4.12)
2 45. A, true. (par. 4.12)
LESSON 6
3 1. A, true. (par. 5.13)
3 2. B, false. (par. 5.6)
3 3. A, true. (par. 5.9)
3 4. A, true. (pars. 5.3, 5.7)
3 5. B, false. (par. 5.6)
3 6. B, false. (par. 5.14)
3 7. A, true. (par. 5.14a)
3 8. B. false. (par. 5.14)
3 9. A, true. (par. 5.14b)
3 10. A, true. (par. 5.14d)
3 11. A, true. (par. 5.10)
3 12, B, false. (par. 5.11)
11
Weight Exercise
3 13. A, true. (par. 5.9)
3 14. A, true. (par. 5.12)
3 15. A, true. (par. 5.10)
2 16. B, false. (par. 5.16)
2 17. A, true. (par. 5.15)
2 18. A, true. (par. 5.18)
2 19. A, true. (par. 5.17)
2 20. A, true. (par. 5.15)
2 21. A, true. (par. 5.20)
2 22. B, false. (par. 5.19d)
2 23. A, true. (par. 5.19a)
2 24. A, true. (par. 5.19b)
2 25. A, true. (par. 5.19c)
2 26. B, false. (par. 5.19b)
2 27. A, true. (par. 5.19)
2 28. B, false. (par. 5.3)
2 29. A, true. (par. 5.3)
2 30. A, true. (par. 5.3)
2 31. B, false. (par. 5.3)
2 32. A, true. (par. 5.3)
2 33. A, true. (par. 5.3)
2 34. B, false. (par. 5.4)
2 35. B, false. (par. 5.4)
12
Weight Exercise
2 36. B, false. (par. 5.4)
2 37. A, true. (par. 5.5)
2 38. B, false. (par. 5.4)
2 39. B, false. (par. 5.4)
1 40. A. (par. 5.5)
1 41. C. (par. 5.5)
1 42. B. (par. 5.5)
1 43. D. (par. 5.5)
1 44. A. (par. 5.5)
1 45. C. (par. 5.5)
1 46. D. (par. 5.5)
LESSON 7
3 1. A, true. (par. 6.2)
3 2. A, true. (par. 6.7)
3 3. B, false. (par. 6.4)
3 4. B, false. (par. 6.8, table IV)
3 5. A, true. (par. 6.10)
3 6. B, false. (par. 6.11b)
3 7. A, true. (par. 6.1c)
3 8. A, true. (par. 6.11a)
3 9. B, false. (par. 6.11e)
3 10. A, true. (par. 6.11d)
3 11. A, true. (par. 6.11e)
13
Weight Exercise
3 12. B, false. (par. 6.1)
3 13. A, true. (par. 6.2)
3 14. B, false. (table IV)
3 15. B, false. (table IV)
3 16. A, true. (par. 6.2)
3 17. A, true. (par. 6.2)
3 18. B, false. (par. 6.9)
3 19. A, true. (par. 6.9)
3 20. A, true. (par. 6.9)
3 21. B, false. (par. 6.9)
3 22. A, true. (par. 6.9)
2 23. A, true. (par. 6.3)
2 24. B, false. (par. 6.3)
2 25. B, false. (par. 6.3)
2 26. A, true. (par. 6.3)
2 27. A, true. (par. 6.3)
2 28. A, true. (par. 6.4)
2 29. B, false. (par. 6.4)
2 30. A, true. (par. 6.4)
2 31. A, true. (par. 6.4)
2 32. A, true. (par. 6.4)
2 33. B, false. (par. 6.4)
2 34. C. (par. 6.6)
14
Weight Exercise
2 35. A. (par. 6.5)
2 36. D. (par. 6.7)
2 37. C. (par. 6.6)
2 38. A. (par. 6.5)
2 39. B. (par. 6.5)
LESSON 8
3 1. B, false. (par. 10.1)
3 2. B, false. (par. 7.1)
3 3. A, true. (par. 8.13)
3 4. B, false. (pars. 9.1, .3)
3 5. A, true. (par. 7.11)
3 6. A, true. (par. 7.7)
3 7. A, true. (par. 7.9b)
3 8. B, false. (par. 7.7)
3 9. B, false. (par. 7.9c)
3 10. A, true. (par. 7.10)
3 11. A, true. (par. 7.9d)
3 12. A, true. (par. 7.7)
3 13. B, false. (par. 7.9a)
3 14. A, true. (par. 9.19)
3 15. B, false. (par. 9.16b)
3 16. A, true. (par. 9. 15e)
3 17. B, false. (par. 9.15c)
15
Weight Exercise
3 18. A, true. (par. 9.7j, k)
3 19. A, true. (pars. 9.9, 9.10)
3 20. B, false. (par. 9.7a, b)
3 21. B, false. (par. 9.3)
2 22. B, false. (par. 8.16)
2 23. A, true. (par. 8.12)
2 24. B, false. (par. 8.9)
2 25. A, true. (par. 8.11)
2 26. B, false. (par. 8.12)
3 27. A, true. (par. 7.7)
3 28. A, true. (par. 7.5)
3 29. B, false. (par. 7.1)
3 30. B, false. (par. 7.6)
3 31. A, true. (par. 7.4)
2 32. A, true. (par. 8.9)
2 33. A, true. (par. 8.6)
2 34. A, true. (par. 8.3)
2 35. B, false. (pars. 8.5, 8.6)
2 36. A, true. (par. 8.4)
2 37. B, false. (par. 8.3)
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1999 - 728-075/00993
16
Appendix II
GLOSSARY
Acceleration lag -- in the turbine engine, delay between the time instant power is requested and when
power is available. The time it takes the engine to accelerate and give the required power
increase.
Aerodynamic drag -- force which thrust must overcome to move an aircraft forward. Design can lessen
aerodynamic drag through streamlining. Drag increases with increased speed.
Airbleed actuator -- device that operates the interstage bleed system, to improve compressor acceleration
characteristics by unloading small amounts of compressed air.
Air density -- total mass of air per given volume, the weight of a given volume of air. Air is denser at
lower altitude, at lower temperature, and lower humidity.
Air-fuel ratio -- 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel by weight, the mixture to be burned in the combustion
chamber.
Air inlet -- large, smooth aluminum duct to conduct the air into the compressor.
Ambient air -- surrounding air.
Angle of attack -- the acute angle formed by the direction of the relative wind and some longitudinal
reference axis of the aircraft.
Annular combustion chamber -- two-part combustion chamber made up of an annular liner and a
housing assembly. The compressed air goes into a ring-shaped space formed by the annular liner
around the turbine shaft rather than into individual combustion chambers. The space between
the outer liner wall and the housing assembly allows the flow of cooling air. Used with axialflow
and dual compressors.
Annular reverse-flow -- type of gas turbine engine most commonly used in Army aircraft. Air flow
direction is reversed in the combustion area.
264
Anodizing -- putting a protective oxide film on a light metal by an electrolytic process.
Anti-icing system -- device that supplies hot air under pressure to prevent icing of the inlet housing areas
and inlet guide vanes. Hot scavenged oil is also circulated through internal passages in the walls
and struts.
Army Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (ASOAP) -- periodic oil analysis for microscopic metal
particles. This takes place at an oil analysis laboratory.
Atmospheric pressure -- barometric pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of gravitational
attraction above the point in question.
Atomizer -- nozzle that creates a highly atomized and accurately shaped spray of fuel suitable for rapid
mixing and combustion.
Axial-flow compressor -- one in which the air is compressed parallel to the axis of the engine. It is
made up of a series of alternating rotor and stator vane stages.
Bleed system -- device that unloads small amounts of air to relieve pressure.
Boss -- raised rim around a hole; e.g., axle hole in a wheel. Circular projection on a casting, usually
serving as the seat for a bolt head or nut.
Brayton cycle -- constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes
simultaneously and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power. The turbine engine
operates on this cycle.
Can-annular combustion chamber -- one with characteristics of both the can and annular types. It has an
outer shell and a number of individual cylindrical liners.
Can combustion chamber -- one made up of individual combustion chambers in which the air from the
compressor enters each individual chamber through the adapter.
Caustics -- substances that can burn, corrode, or destroy animal or other organic tissue by chemical
action.
265
Centrifugal-axial flow compressor -- combination of the centrifugal-flow and the axial-flow
compressors. It usually consists of a five- or seven-stage axial-flow compressor and one
centrifugal-flow compressor. Also called the dual compressor.
Centrifugal-flow compressor -- one with an impeller (rotor), stator, and compressor manifold. The rotor
revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades. Centrifugal force accelerates the air, and it
moves through the stator and through the manifold.
Combustion -- process of burning the fuel-air mixture in a gas turbine engine.
Combustion chamber -- part of a turbine engine in which the propulsive power is developed by
combustion of the injected fuel and the expansive force of the resulting gases.
Combustion chamber liner -- engine part usually constructed of welded high-nickel steel, subjected to
flame of extremely high temperature. It is behind the compressor and receives the compressed
air which is mixed with fuel and ignited. The combustor is where the combustion takes place.
Combustor -- the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with its associated burners, igniters, and
injection devices.
Compressor -- that section of an engine that produces an increase in air pressure. It is made up of
rotating and stationary vane assemblies. It is the gas producer, or it may be thought of as an air
pump.
Compressor rotor -- impeller, may be thought of as an air pump. It accelerates the air rearward into the
first stage vane assemblies.
Compressor stall -- separation of the airflow from the suction surface of the fixed or rotating blades of a
compressor. Any degree of stall reduces airflow.
Concave -- pressure side of an airfoil.
Conduction -- transfer of heat through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to
particle rather than by a flow of heated material.
266
Convergent area -- place where the cross-sectional area of a duct becomes smaller.
Convergent exhaust duct -- used on fixed-wing aircraft, formed by tapering toward the rear of the duct.
Convex -- suction side of an airfoil.
Crossover tube -- duct carrying flame to the individual cylindrical liners of the can-annular combustion
chamber.
Diffuser -- aft structural member of an engine. It receives high velocity air from the centrifugal impeller
and decreases velocity and increases air pressure. In the combustor, a diffuser forms a divergent
flow path for the exhaust gases.
Diffusion -- process by which gases intermingle as the result of their spontaneous movement caused by
thermal agitation.
Directional references -- specific definitions of terms referring to gas turbine engines to identify front
and rear, right and left, bottom and top.
Divergent area -- place where air flows from a smaller into a larger area.
Divergent exhaust duct -- used on helicopters, device to diffuse the exhaust gases rearward and to
eliminate thrust.
Dry-cleaning solvent -- cleaning compound that may be used for all metal parts.
Dry-sump engine -- one in which the oil is stored separate from the engine.
Dual compressor -- see centrifugal-flow, axial-flow compressor.
Duplex nozzle -- dual-orifice channel through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays of
fuel go into the combustion chamber.
Engine airflow path -- route of the airflow through the engine. See paragraph 4. 4a for a detailed
description of airflow through a T53-L-13.
267
Engine oil pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings of engine oil pump
pressure in psi.
Engine oil temperature indicating system -- device electrically connected to the 28v dc system which
transmits temperature readings to the indicator in degrees centrigrade.
Engine speed notation -- capital letter N represents the rotational speed of the engine. When a number is
placed after the N, as in N1, it indicates a specific system on the engine.
Engine stations -- specific locations on the engine designating temperature- or pressure-measuring
locations. For example, T3 means the third temperature pickup on the engine.
Engine surge -- result of compressor stall. The complete engine in stall.
Exhaust -- hot gases discharged from the engine through the exhaust diffuser section.
Exhaust diffuser -- section composed of an inner and outer housing, separated by hollow struts across
the exhaust passage. It forms a divergent flow path for the exhaust gases.
Exhaust gas temperature indicator -- sensitive millivoltmeter calibrated in degree centigrade, activated
by an electrical force generated by its thermocouple.
Fir tree mount -- manner of attaching the blades to the disk in the turbine rotor assembly. The root of
the blade where it is attached to the disk is shaped like a fir tree. See figures 1.27 and 1.28 on
page 42.
Foreign object damage -- commonly called FOD, harm or destruction to the turbine engine caused by
foreign objects sucked into the inlet area of the engine with the required air.
Forged -- shaped by hammering. Only the malleable metals are worked successfully. The application of
heat increases plasticity.
268
Free-power turbine engine -- the turbine engine used by the Army. Sixty percent of the energy produced
by combustion is extracted by the gas producer turbine to drive the gas producer rotor. The rest
of the energy is converted to shaft horsepower to drive the out-put shaft of the engine.
Frictional loss -- resistance to the relative motion of air flowing along a duct.
Frontal area -- front part of a gas turbine engine, smaller than that of a reciprocating engine, therefore
producing less drag.
Front of engine -- end from which power is extracted. An exception is the T73 engine on the CH-54, in
which the power is extracted at the end where the exhaust gas is expelled.
Fuel-air ratio -- see air-fuel ratio.
Fuel atomizer -- See atomizer.
Fuel controls -- devices to control fuel flow. They are usually hydromechanical and include speed
governors, servo systems, valves, metering systems, and sensing pickups.
Fuel divider -- device that meters fuel to the engine nozzles according to a predetermined schedule of
secondary flow versus primary flow.
Fuel nozzle -- device to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a highly atomized and accurately
shaped spray.
Fuel pressure indicating system -- device that gives continuous readings in psi of fuel pressure in the
main fuel supply line.
Gas producer (N1) -- compressor in a free-power turbine engine.
Gas turbine engine -- aircraft powerplant that is adaptable for both airplanes and helicopters.
Gerotor pump -- modified gear-type pump with two moving parts, an inner toothed element and an outer
toothed element. The inner one has one less tooth than the outer.
Glow plug -- device that consists of a heating element in a short conventional-looking spark plug.
269
Heat exchanger -- fuel-oil cooler, to help cool the oil. The exchanger is a cylindrical oil chamber
surrounded by a jacket through which the fuel passes. Heat from the oil is transferred to the fuel
by conduction.
Humidity -- amount or degree of moisture in the air. If humidity increases, air density is decreased.
Humidity has little effect on density, however, in comparison with temperature and pressure
changes.
Igniter plugs -- spark plugs which function only during starting and cut out of the circuit as soon as
combustion is self-supporting.
Imbalance -- uneven distribution of weight resulting in rotating parts being out of balance. Measured in
inch-grams or inch-ounces.
Impeller rotor -- rotor in a compressor that revolves at high speed, drawing air into the blades.
Inlet guide vanes -- devices positioned by the inlet guide vane actuator pilot valve. They are located in
front of the first compressor rotor, and they control the angle of incidence of the inlet air, thus
ensuring a compressor surge margin.
Inlet housing assembly -- forward structural support of the engine.
Jetcal analyzer -- device used to check the exhaust gas temperature during periodic maintenance
inspections or when abnormally high or low temperatures are noted.
Jet propulsion -- propulsion of a body by means of a jet or stream of gas, obtaining all or most if its
thrust by reaction to the ejection of the combustion products (gas).
Joule -- unit of energy or work used in rating gas turbine ignition systems. A joule is equal to the
amount of energy expended in one second by an electric current of one ampere through a
resistance of one ohm.
Kinetic energy -- work energy associated with motion.
Labyrinth seal -- device for preventing leakage of gas on the gas generator shaft in a turbine. A
labyrinth consists of a series of projections on the rotating element running in close contact with
grooves on the stationary element.
270
Maintenance allocation chart -- chart in a -20 TM that assigns maintenance tasks to the lowest level
capable of doing them, based on experience, skills, tools, and time available.
Manifold -- component in which air or gases are collected for intake or expulsion.
Micron --one millionth of a meter.
Mil -- unit of length equal to 1/1000 inch. Unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of the
circumference of a circle.
N1 system -- gas producer.
N2 system -- power turbine and shaft.
Nacelle -- enclosed housing for an aircraft engine, outside the fuselage.
Nozzle -- channel through which gas is conveyed to the rotor vanes of a turbine. Its purpose is to
convert pressure into velocity.
Orifice -- opening having a closed perimeter through which a fluid may discharge. It may be open to the
atmosphere, or it may be partially or completely submerged in the discharged fluid.
Oscillograph -- instrument that produces a record of variations in an electrical quantity.
Oscilloscope -- instrument that shows the presence and form of an electric current.
Outside air temperature -- commonly abbreviated as O. A. T, the temperature of the air outside the
engine.
Otto cycle -- a constant volume cycle, with four distinct operations performed intermittently.
Reciprocating engines operate on this cycle.
Overspeed governor, N2 -- gearbox mounted on engine inlet housing and driven from the power shaft.
Overspeed governor, fuel control -- part of the torquemeter system, an individual pumping unit which,
with the tachometer drive assembly, sets the torquemeter oil pressure.
271
PD 680 -- cleaning solvent for exterior of engine and its attached components.
Pneumatic -- something moved or worked by air pressure.
Power-to-weight ratio -- relationship between power and weight. Turbine engines produce more power
for weight than reciprocating engines.
Power turbine (N2) -- turbine that is free and independent of the gas producer system. It develops
rotational shaft power.
Pressure oil system -- method of supplying oil under pressure to engine parts.
Pressure pumps -- devices to put oil into the system.
Pressurizing and drain dump valve -- device to prevent flow of fuel to the nozzle until enough pressure
is built up in the fuel control. One also drains the fuel manifold at engine shutdown and traps
fuel in the upper portion of the system to keep the fuel control primed for faster starts.
Primary air -- air that mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber, to form a combustible mixture. The
ratio is 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel.
Radial inflow turbine -- type of turbine made by some manufacturers, not used in any Army aircraft
today, even though it is rugged and simple, relatively inexpensive, and easy to manufacture.
Similar in design and construction to the centrifugal-flow compressor.
Ram air pressure -- free stream air pressure, provided by the forward motion of the engine.
Rear of engine -- end of engine from which exhaust gas is expelled.
Reciprocating engine -- device which produces motion in which the power originates in pistons and
cylinders.
Reverse flow -- change in direction of airflow in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine.
Rotational direction -- direction of movement of the rotating part, determined by viewing the engine
from the rear.
272
Rotor -- in a gas turbine engine, the turbine wheel.
Scavenge oil system -- method of returning oil from the engine to the oil tank, for cooling and reuse.
Scavenger pumps -- those that drain oil from the sumps at various parts of the engine, return it through
the oil cooler, and back to the oil tank.
Secondary air -- large surplus of air that cools the hot sections of a gas turbine engine to lower
temperatures.
Shaft horsepower (SHP) -- energy used to drive the compressor and accessories in a turbine engine.
Shroud -- device used with turbine rotor to prevent blade tip losses and excessive vibrations. The
shrouded blades can be thinner than unprotected ones.
Simplex nozzles -- single-orifice channels through which highly atomized and accurately shaped sprays
of fuel go into the combustion chamber.
Solvent immersion -- cleaning method in which parts are immersed in solvent to remove carbon, gum,
grease, and other surface contaminants.
Splines -- teeth in a gear.
Speed governor -- device to relieve the pilot from resetting the power lever when outside air temperature
and pressure change. Consists of flyweights balanced by a spring.
Standard day conditions -- 59°F, sea level barometric pressure (29.92 inches of mercury).
Stator -- part of assembly that remains stationary with respect to a rotating part. Stator vanes are a
stationary set of airfoils in a compressor.
Tachometer -- device that gives the pilot a continuous indication of engine rpm.
Tachometer generator -- device that supplies power at a frequency proportional to the driven speed
which drives the synchronous motors in the indicator.
273
TBO -- time between overhauls. This is established by the Army and the engine manufacturer.
Test cell -- building, usually concrete, that contains both a control room and an engine room, used for
testing engines. The test cell is at the manufacturer's; a mobile engine-test unit is used in the
field.
Thermocouple -- device composed of two pieces of metal or wire joined where heat is to be applied and
the free end connected to an electrical measuring instrument.
Thermodynamic cycle -- succession of processes which involve changes in temperature, pressure, and
density in which the substance acts as a means of transformation of energy. See Otto and
Brayton cycles.
Thrust -- pushing or pulling force developed by an aircraft engine.
Torquemeter -- hydromechanical torque-measuring device located in the reduction-gear section of the
inlet housing. The measurement is read as torque oil pressure in psi.
Torquemeter indicating system -- pressure indicator for continuous readings of engine output-shaft
torque.
Transducer -- device actuated by power from one system and supplying power to a second system.
Turbine -- rotary engine actuated by the reaction of a current of fluid (gas in this case) subject to
pressure. The turbine is usually made with a series of curved vanes on a central spindle arranged
to rotate.
Turbine nozzle -- stationary nozzle which discharges a jet of gas against the blades on the periphery of a
turbine wheel.
Turbine rotor -- rotating portion of a turbine engine. It is made of specially alloyed steel because of
severe centrifugal loads, the result of high rotational speeds.
Turbine section -- part of the turbine engine that extracts the kinetic energy of the expanding gases and
transforms it into shaft horsepower.
Turbofan -- compressor section of a turbine engine.
274
Turbojet -- engine most commonly used in high-speed, high-altitude aircraft.
Turboprop engine -- one in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to
rotational shaft power, to provide power for a propeller.
Turboshaft -- engine in which a turbine rotor converts the energy of the expanding gases to rotational
shaft power, to provide power for a helicopter transmission.
Vapor blasting -- abrasive method used to clean combustor parts. Not to be used on ceramic,
magnesium, painted, or aluminum surfaces.
Vapor degreasing -- cleaning method used on unpainted metal parts or aluminum-painted steel parts.
Vaporizing tubes -- devices used instead of fuel nozzles in a T53-L-11 engine.
Variable inlet guide vanes -- devices located in front of the first compressor rotor to guide the angle of
incidence of the inlet air to the first compressor rotor.
Velocity -- speed or rate of motion in a given direction, and in a given frame of reference.
Venturi -- short tube with flaring ends connected by a constricted middle section forming a throat. It
depends for operation upon the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases in the throat, the
pressure decreases. It is used for measuring the quantity of a fluid flowing in connection with
other devices for measuring airspeed and for producing suction, especially for driving aircraft
instruments by means of a branch tube joined at the throat.
Vermatherm element -- device which senses outlet fuel temperature and closes the core valve and opens
the bypass valve.
Vibration -- periodic motion of a body or medium in alternately opposite directions from the position of
equilibrium. Vibration meter--device for measuring vibrations.
Weldment -- unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces, as in gear housing.
275
Appendix I
REFERENCES
Army Regulations
AR 310-25 Dictionary of United States Army Terms
AR 310-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes
Technical Manuals
TM 55-406 Fundamentals of Aircraft Powerplant Maintenance
TM 55-2840-229-24/T.O. 2J-T53-16 Maintenance: Organizational, Direct Support, and General
Support, Engine, Shaft Turbine
U. S. Army Transportation School Publications
333-335 T53-L-13 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-337 T74-CP-700 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-339 T63-A-5A/700 Gas Turbine Engine Advance Sheet
333-374 JFTD-12A-1/T-73-P-1 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-375 T55-L-11 Turboshaft, Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-385 Jet Cal Analyzer
333-394 T55-L-7, T55-L-7C Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
333-397 T62 Gas Turbine Engine Familiarization Manual
263
INDEX
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277
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279
280
281

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